Suit Up – 50 Years of Spacewalks

I look down, and the Earth is down here.

Oh, okay.


Hurry, get back and do some more things.

And I had another rest period.

And so, this time, I took one foot out anddid a little agility.

And I looked.

Oh, uh-oh.

The Earth's not there.

Oh, there it is, up there.

To be in the space suit outside and to lookout in any direction was pretty neat.

It's humans out there.

It's humans out here.

It's humans on the frontier.

When I opened the hatch, I mean I had thewhole universe in front of me.

It was spectacular.

Then you sort of poke your head out and fliparound.

And you take a look around.

And, you know, it's really a holy moly kindof moment.

that was when I first learned I think whatthe definition of what it truly is to be alone.

Being in space, being in Earth orbit, floatingis truly a magical experience.

It means an exciting day.

And it means it's a day that's going to bea lot of work, NASA's astronauts and their internationalpartners suit up for modern space walks with training and experience.

Humans suited up.

Leaving the vehicle and going out on spacewalks, exploring and always going into a situation we’ve never been to before to fix something, space station to deploy an experiment or longer term I think of spacewalking on Mars.

Spend a lot of time thinking about how humansare going to explore Mars suited with some new cool technology.

when floating out in the void of space, theyare standing on the shoulders of giants, making new discoveries by building on a prestigiouslegacy.

: Why did the Russians put Sputnik up? Why didn't the US do that? We were shooken-up by Sputnik.

And we marshaled our resources and put togethera winning program.

One of the things that drove us into humanspace flight was fear, was the fear when Sputnik went overhead in 1957 and people began torealize that there was another nation in the world that had the capability of putting somethinginto space that could actually pass over the United States.

That's not a good way to do aClearly our motivation was a race.

It was to beat the Soviets.

And we had to do that for international prestige.

And so, that set us on a sprint to the moon.

We will get to the moon within the decade.

And we did.

But, it didn't set us up for a long-term explorationprogram in space.

Way back in what we called the Terrible '60s, when the country was awash in campus unrest, civil strife, the beginning of a very unpopularwar, the Soviets literally owned space at that point in time.

Yuri Gagarin back in the early 1961 made oneorbit around the Earth.

Alan Shepard became the hero that this countryneeded.

America's initial and successfully crewedspace missions, known as Project Mercury, were followed by Project Gemini, the provingground that would lead to the Apollo missions and the landing on the moon.

On the Soviet side, cosmonauts and engineerswere doing similar work to extend space flight duration, improve rendezvous techniques, andto develop the capability to leave the spacecraft, in what was dubbed by NASA as an extravehicularactivity, or EVA.

In order for us to conquer the space, we needto learn how to The first successful egress from a spacecraftwhile in orbit was achieved by cosmonaut Alexey Leonov on March 18th, 1965, making him thefirst person to complete and EVA, or spacewalk.

: And what I saw, and I just half of the worldbecause we were 500 kilometers above the earth.

And nobody, even up until now, nobody's flyingthat high.

Alexey's, you know, task was to get out andget back in.

And he had basically, as best I understandit, a fabric tunnel after he got out of an airlock.

And he was literally out there in the vacuumof space.

And once he got through that tunnel, his jobwas to turn around and get back in and had a great deal of difficulty getting back inbecause he had to turn around in that tunnel with a pressurized space suit.

At that time, even for us, was like beinginhibited by a suit of Plaster of Paris.

I mean it's hard to move anything.

And he literally had to deflate his spacesuitat that point in time to be able to reduce his size to get back in.

Later that year, Gemini 4 stood ready to launchfrom Cape Canaveral, Florida, with the primary objective of gathering the results of an extendedfour-day mission on both crew and spacecraft.

Gemini 4's original semiconservative missionwas then expanded to include, amongst other things, a dramatic exit from the Gemini spacecraftin what would be America's first spacewalk.

On June 3rd, 1965, the second crewed missionof the Gemini series carried James McDivitt and Edward White into space.

At 2:46 P.


Eastern Time, using a handheld gas gun, Whitestepped out of his spacecraft, leaving crewmate McDivitt behind to witness the vastness ofspace alone, becoming the first American astronaut to complete a spacewalk.

It's very easy to maneuver the gun.

The only problem I have is that I haven'tgot enough fuel.

The only thing I wish is I had more.

This is the greatest experience It’s justtremendous.

We had Ed White's magnificent 20-minute, quote, walk in space.

I don't think you'll ever get any better film.

It was space euphoria, I think, from everyone, from Ed and Jim McDivitt, to everyone on the ground at Mission Control, everybody.

I mean it was spectacular.

He had a little gun.

He controlled his body.

He could move where he wanted to go.

It set us up.

As time progressed, the Gemini program continuedto refine and even extend EVA procedures as more astronauts followed with tethered spacewalksin Earth's orbit.

Well, you know the difficulties that we hadin the Gemini program doing spacewalks because the state of the art needs to improve.

But, you saw the difficulties there, whereyou jump out and you try to get something done.

Well, you haven't practiced in the free fallzero G condition.

And so, it's Newton's Second Law.

You push on something.

It moves your body instead of getting workdone.

And so, that whole business, you see, we justevolved and we grew since Leonov and Gemini.

Americans like Gene Cernan, Michael Collins, Richard Gordon, and Buzz Aldrin continued the competition with the Soviets.

In the Gemini days, when they were tryingto do the first spacewalks from a capsule, the first EVAs, the first spacewalks werenot very productive.

The crew members got outside.

They didn't have anything to hold onto.

They kind of flailed around.

They couldn't do fairly simple tasks.

And they learned from that that they had tohave a better way to train.

And they started to use water tanks at thattime.

Every progressive EVA had different littlehang ups, frustration, overpowering, getting overheated.

Next came the Apollo program, with one ofits lofty goals to land Americans on the surface of the moon and then return them safely toEarth.

We're going to moon.

I mean, hey, we're going to the moon.

The Gemini series, you could pretty much compareit to what the launch entry suit was like, you know.

It was not custom made.

But, you could–you know, the length in thatstuff could be configured so that you did have a certain mobility in the arms and atthe knees, the difference being the Apollo suits were all custom made for each crew member.

Three, two, one, zero, all engine running.

Lift off, we have a lift off, 32 minutes pastthe hour, liftoff on Apollo 11.

The first steps on the lunar surface wereperformed by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.

It was July 21st, 1969.

And the world irrevocably changed with thesteps of men very far away from the Earth.

That's one small step for a man, one giantleap for mankind.

I do remember the first landing on the moon, Apollo 11.

I remember I guess I was in high school andstaying up and watching that and going out and looking at the moon and just marvelingabout there are people up there.

I think we were all captivated when Neil Armstrongdid the ultimate spacewalk, which was to actually go out of his vehicle and end up walking onthe surface of another body in our solar system.

You have a mass with the backpack and thebody and everything else.

And you move around.

And you kind of think that you can changedirection.

But, that's sort of why at the end of ourtwo hour, two and a half hour EVA, I got in front of the camera and bounced around withdifferent ways of moving.

I was really personally impressed with theApollo EVAs and spacewalks.

Can you imagine the first humans to ever walkon another planetary body to the moon? So, just fantastic, and you kind of see thattwo-foot bunny hop.

So, we had great spacesuits.

We kept the Apollo astronauts alive.

Once we got the Lunar Rover set up, we wereready to go be lunar explorers, if you will.

And part of the lunar rover had plastic fendersthat when it was folded up, we had to unfold them.

And they slid down to cover the wheels.

But, the reason we had fenders on these thingswere because the lunar dust was one of the biggest problems that we encountered on thesurface of the moon.

It was almost the texture of graphite.

But, graphite's a lubricant.

This was just the opposite.

It would get in and on everything.

So, I was walking, doing some work aroundthe lunar rover.

And I put my rock hammer in my pocket withthe handle sticking out.

And I caught it under one of those extensionsof the fender and, boom, blew it off.

The dust would have come right over the topand immersed us in all this dust.

So, we had to figure out a way.

We took four maps, four lunar geology maps, and taped them together and took a couple light clamps and clamped them.

And it did the job.

And what did we tape them with? Duct tape.

: We went from there into the Skylab program.

And we went to the A7LB at that time.

So, Apollo, you know, so on the surface withA7L, a spacesuit.

And we do 1/6 of the gravity.

And we do have the life support system onthe back, which is taking care of all our physiology, the cooling, the oxygen, removingthe carbon dioxide, and all the rest of that.

In the Skylab problem, we were on an umbilical.

The umbilical provided all of the physiology, if you will.

The umbilical between the spacewalker andthe Skylab Space Station provided all the life support.

When we went into the Shuttle program, wewent back to riding a backpack.

But, the big difference between the Shuttleand Apollo was that we did–we integrated the backpack with the suit itself.

So, Apollo was you wear the backpack there, and you bring the hoses around and connect them.

In the Shuttle program, we integrated thehard upper torso and the life support system.

But, importantly too is that we did away withthe zipper.

Now the zipper worked.

And I had taken a zipper through a vacuummany times.

The zipper starts here, and it rolls around, and it rolls up the back.

And the zipper is maybe three feet long.

And it is a zipper.

And a zipper is the only thing between youand eternity.

Spacewalking has actually saved some of ourprograms.

So, we can look at Skylab, which Skylab, thehabitat was getting very, very hot.

And the astronauts had to go outside in theirspacesuits, perform the extravehicular activity, and they literally saved Skylab.

Without EVA, Skylab would have not been habitable.

You know, they had to deploy the solar array.

They had to deploy the thermal canopy overthe damaged area.

So, EVA saved that mission completely.

Another great example from the Gamma Ray ObservatoryMission, Jerry Ross and Jay Apt went out and literally got an antenna deployed.

And it saved, you know, a major observatory, so really important interactions when humans are suited and kind of saving very large missions.

My first job in the astronaut office aftermy initial training program was completed was to start working on EVAs, or spacewalks, and the equipment.

And in fact, we worked with the early crewsto design what their spacewalks would be like.

STS-5 was the first planned spacewalk.

And they had equipment malfunctions whichprohibited them from going outside.

And then STS-6 was the first one where weactually conducted some spacewalks.

So, I worked with those crews, helping themto figure out what tools we had available to them that they could test out and operatein the vacuum of space, out in the payload bay of the orbiter.

And then we progressed from there.

The suit was not a brand-new suit anymore.

I had run it through all the on the floor.

It's the 1G tests.

I had run it through vacuum testing.

I had run it through certification, wherethe number of cycles you put on every–all the joints.

I've been in the water with it.

So, it was a friend.

From that, then we started to develop thingslike the manned maneuvering unit, the little rocket backpack that we demonstrated on severalflights and used in some cases.

In dramatic fashion, doing the first fullyuntethered spacewalk, Bruce McCandless zoomed about in the manned maneuvering unit.

This equipment test would lead to the retrievalof stranded satellites on subsequent missions year later.

And I was really jealous of Bruce McCandlesswhen he had a backpack and went out a ways without a tether and maneuvered around.

Over the following years, extravehicular activitybecame one of the space traveler's most exciting and necessary tools in his or her tool belt.

It was July 17th, 1984, as cosmonaut SvetlanaSavitskaya broke the proverbial glass ceiling and became the first woman to walk in space.

Kathryn Sullivan followed shortly after onOctober 11th, becoming the first female American astronaut to perform a spacewalk.

This is the first chance I had to stick myhead out the hatch on our EVA on day seven.

As time progressed, so did the need for advancedtechnology and utilities.

Complicated missions and space program savingmaneuvers are the essence of NASA's extravehicular activity.

There was one time when I was on the end ofthe mechanical arm.

It was on the Hubble mission.

And I was being moved from one place to another.

And you really have no sensation of movementwhen you're on that arm.

And it's just so smooth.

There's nothing.

There's no drag of the water pulling you back.

And so, you don't really know you're moving.

And I was just–I was working on the tools.

I was putting the sockets on for the nextwhatever task I had to do next.

And the guys stopped.

And they said, “You have to look at this.

You just have to stop and look.

” And so, I stopped and looked.

And we were over the Gulf of Mexico.

We could see the entire North America.

And we could see an aurora up over Canada.

And it was just an amazing view.

We started to develop little power tools.

We developed more wrenches and others kindsof tools that we could use for other types of failures that we identified in the payloadbay door mechanisms to remove debris or to disconnect things should the not functionproperly.

From the Apollo program's deep space missionsaround and to the moon, to the US Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station programs, spacewalkers have suited up.

On board the spacecraft, you've got the todaytwo spacewalk crew members who go out, work cooperatively together.

They become brother and sister, brother andbrother, sister and sister.

They learn how to work as a very coherentteam.

They actually understand each other's moves.

They know where they're supposed to be.

You've got nowadays a robotic operator who'sgenerally moving one–at least one of the crew members around on a robotic arm.

You've got the IV crew member, the intravehicularcrew member, who is, for all intents and purposes, the choreographer.

If you can imagine a ballet, there is a choreographeroffstage who's really taught everybody which moves to make and directing them on how toperfect their moves and everything.

And that's what an IV crew member does, hasthe whole mission kind of committed to memory, knows when somebody's out of position, knowswhen somebody's about to get too far away where they can be safely tethered.

Back on Earth in the Mission Control Center, you have the primary person on console that is the EV, or the extravehicular controller.

In the back room, they probably have anywherefrom 25 to 100 people who are looking at data from each of the spacewalking astronauts.

They're looking at data from the spacewalkthat's actually going on.

And then somewhere in the world, like at aplace that built the spacesuit, or somebody that designed the procedure that's being down, whether it's in Denver, Colorado, or Connecticut, they're also looking on.

And they have their own data that they'reevaluating and getting all that back into Mission Control in Houston, telling the flightcontrol team, okay, we see this developing or we see this happening.

You need to let the crew know, so probablythousands of people supporting the development of the types of spacewalks that we're goingto do and then hundreds actually involved in the spacewalk on that particular day.

It was part of our training to make sure that, you know, even though you might be nervous, try not to show them that you're nervous.

Everything had to be laid out perfectly, youknow.

I mean from the start, you know, you had yourcheck list.

It was all laid out properly.

You know which pocket every pen went it, youknow, even down to where the pocket they wanted their sandwich put in.

It has been the astronauts' mantra to train, test, and One of the things that astronauts learn todo, to look at a situation and don't panic about anything.

You'll make it worse.

But, think carefully.

Did you do something wrong? And then fix it.

Well, the astronaut prayer, which is please, God, don't let me screw this up.

That's the first thing.

I think the biggest fear that I had and maybemany astronauts as well is not that I was going to get hurt.

It was that I was going to mess up becauseeverybody's watching.

You have such a limited time out there toget done what needs to be done.

And you really, really don't want to makea mistake.

It was cold.

So, that was a little surprise.

But, we should have anticipated cold.

But, it turns out at that point, we had onlydone hot spacewalks.

Until STS6, they had all been warm.

The STS-125 crew, which was the final Hubbleserving mission, that almost none of us thought they would be able to successfully completefive back-to-back-to-back-to-back-to-back EVAs and do all that they were supposed todo.

And they not only completed them in spiteof obstacles that almost on–at every turn on almost every single EVA.

But, they did them superbly and left Hubblein incredible shape.

And I think they a tremendous service to planetaryscience, astrophysics, and just the field of spacewalks in terms of showing people thatif you really work hard at it and you plan it and you execute the way you plan, there'snothing we can't do.

When you're doing a spacewalk on orbit, you'rein your own spaceship.

It's your spacesuit.

But, it keeps you from the vacuum outsideand your crewmates inside the space shuttle.

I had one moment on the Hubble Space Telescopemission where Drew Feustel, my spacewalking partner, was on the other side of the telescope.

And I was holding onto a handrail lookingup at the Earth go by behind the Hubble.

And it was a truly remarkable moment.

But, I did realize, you know, how far awaywe were from the Earth's atmosphere, from our homes, from our companions inside thespace shuttle.

And I wouldn't say that I felt a sense ofloneliness, but a sense of awe, you know, that we're doing these kind of things, thatwe're able to fix the Hubble to orbit the Earth.

Through spacewalks, complex problems havebeen solved in extreme ways, such as fixing the Hubble Space Telescope's blurry vision, turning a possible billion dollar piece of space junk into one of the most revered scientificinstruments of human history.

Missions like Hubble tested the mettle ofspacewalkers, an elite breed among an already out of this world group of adventurers.

I'd say that on Hubble, it's a very fine motorskill tuned in very close in a lot of hands work.

So, it's almost like doing surgery when you'rein Hubble in a suit, versus being a longshoreman when you're on Space Station or you're justhanging, moving big blivets around and you're changing stuff out.

And that tradition continued with the wallof EVAs, which built the tremendously successful International Space Station.

It's been 50 years since NASA's first EVA, when Ed White went out on Gemini 4.

We've come a long way since that first one.

Building the International Space Station, it was very, very EVA intensive.

And when we were planning for it, everybodytalked about the wall of EVA.

We're never going to be able to accomplishall this.

And when you look back on what we accomplished, it was pretty darned amazing.

So, on my first flight, we were right in themiddle of the construction of the space station.

And so, of course, every shuttle flight thatwent up was full of spacewalks and just putting pieces together.

Every single EVA was an important and necessarycomponent of the assembly sequence.

So, I think we all feel that, you know, wehad a hand in laying the keystone or however you want to describe it.

To see the ISS now and the spacewalks thatthey do to go out and do repairs, I mean it's just incredible.

Station is more than 14 years old, built byspacewalkers, and continues to be maintained and upgraded through spacewalks in the mostadvanced spacesuits the world has ever seen.

Spacewalks are not–they look like they'reincredible fun.

And they probably are for the crew memberwhen you really get down to it.

But, we much never forget how dangerous theyare.

I felt something that was not–unexpected.

I felt cold water on the back of my head.

And that surprised me.

I contacted the ground, which is the firstthing you would do when something that you're not expecting comes up.

So, I asked Houston for advice.

You know, I said I feel water in my helmet.

But, it feels like a lot of water.

The ground doesn't have a lot of informationon the suit.

They can monitor some things.

They have telemetry about my status, my mentalstatus.

And they know how the suit is performing.

But, a lot of things, we couldn't tell atthat point.

Is the water increasing in my helmet, in theback of my helmet? I couldn't tell.

The ground couldn't tell.

We were trying to come out with what couldbe the possible problem and the solution.

Finally came the decision from the groundto take the safest option, which is we are going to terminate this EVA.

Chris and Luca, just for you guys, based onwhat we heard with Luca saying that water is in his eyes now and it seems to be increasing, we think we're going to terminate EVA case for EV2.

And so, when they told me, okay, Luca, you'regoing to travel back to the airlock, and Chris is going to clean and then follow you, that'swhat we did.

And I started translating back to the airlock.

I had to go upside down and translating withmy head towards the ground.

It always happens.

A lot of things happen at the same time.

The sun went down at that point.

You go to zero, darkness, no [unintelligible], and cold.

And at the same time, the water sloshed aroundin my helmet.

And it covered my eyes and my nose and myears.

So, all at once, I was isolated both beingoutside in my spacesuit, but I was also sensorially [ph] isolated.

I couldn't see.

And I couldn't hear.

And I didn't quite know where I was, how tofind my way back to the airlock.

At that point, it was obvious to me that Ineeded to go back to the airlock by myself and do it as fast as I could because I couldstill breathe through my mouth.

But, I didn't know how much water was in thehelmet.

And I didn't know if there would be more waterin the helmet.

Thankfully, we spent hundreds of hours underwater on the neutral buoyant slab learning the configuration of the Space Station andlearning how to use our spacesuit, learning how to navigate.

And so, using that experience and using myknowledge of the suit and everything I had with me, I was able to find my way in thedark, in the blind back to the airlock.

Once I found the airlock, though, everythingbecame a little better because once I opened the terminal cover, the airlock is illuminated.

And that made a huge difference because nowI knew where I was.

And I knew I could get inside by myself.

And the end of it was that at that point, I had no communication whatsoever.

I couldn't hear myself.

I couldn't hear anything.

I couldn't talk.

My ears were filled with water.

But, I was looking up.

And as soon as they opened the hatch betweenthe space station and the airlock, I saw my crewmates and the look on their faces.

They were so worried and so relieved at thesame time.

And they pulled me out.

And as soon as they could, they deflated thesuit and unlocked the helmet.

And the look on their faces and seeing theirfaces was a very happy moment for me.

I felt so relieved and so happy that theywere all around me.

Today, the International Space Station isbeing used as a proving ground to conduct the research and test the technologies thatwill take humans beyond low Earth orbit and deeper into the solar system than ever before, to the area around the moon, to an asteroid, and on to Mars.

We will pioneer space, not just to visit, but to stay.

We're going to migrate out over the next fiveto 10 years into repositioning humanity in lunar orbit.

So, we will spend most of our time orbitingthe moon and doing more technology development, but learning basically how we operate in alow gravity or no gravity environment because that's the way it will be when we go to Mars.

Mars's gravity is less than Earth's.

Operating there will be significantly differentthan operating here in low Earth orbit.

When we do the asteroid redirect mission andwe reposition an asteroid into a stable retrograde orbit around the moon, then the dominant gravityfor that group of explorers, if you will, is going to be the asteroid itself.

And that's going to be a very, very, verylow gravity field if any at all.

So, we've got a lot of development of tactics, techniques, and procedures.

You never know when you build a piece of hardware, the guys back in the '70s and gals that built and designed and tested the original EMUs, which we're still flying today, by the way.

The life support systems are still the originallife support systems that we had 37 years ago.

You never know where that hardware's goingto end up.

To see the suit, you know, to see it go onover the decades and into we never planned on hundreds of spacewalks.

And the key thing there is in structural integrityis that you identify weakness before failure.

From here, NASA engineers, technicians, andastronauts will figure out new ways to overcome the next set of challenges.

We decided to orbit the Earth a lot insteadof going deeper into space.

And now I think it's time for us to take thatstep beyond orbiting the Earth and moving on.

We don't have the same momentum we had whenwe had an enemy that we were afraid of.

So, we are not in competition as much as Ithink we need to be in cooperation with other nations in order to move all of us forwardand out into space.

Mars is really extreme, which is the greatpart about it.

It's challenging.

So, when we get to Mars, you're going to needto be provided your life support and pressure with the spacesuit.

But, it'll have to be really something newin terms of to be very lightweight, be very mobile.

We don't really have a locomotion suit.

We have spacesuits for the vacuum of microgravity.

So, you're weightless, which is great.

But, that's a very different environment.

Now when we get to Mars, we have gravity, [unintelligible] gravity.

So, we're bipedal again.

So, we're going to be walking, bending, orgoing there to search for life.

We're looking for fossils and digging thingsup.

So, you really are an explorer.

So, it is akin to Lewis and Clark Expedition.

And you're exploring and moving out into theWest.

It's really the next frontier.

For anyone who goes on another EVA strollback on the moon or on Mars, and we'll do both one day.

I know that'll happen.

Take duct tape.

We are currently further along than ever beforein human history on our journey to Mars.

American engineers and scientists around thecountry are working hard to develop the technologies, including new spacesuits that astronauts willuse to one day live and work on the Red Planet.

Next stop, Mars.


Make Your Own Ant-Man Suit! – Homemade How-to!

[Music] hey everybody I'm ant-man you guys want to see how we made this sweet costume Ben and Bianca take it away welcome to homemade how-to we show you guys how to make props and costumes using just stuff from around your house we're preparing for our homemade ant-man trailer

and today we're gonna show you how to make the entire Ant Man costume so what's the first step first I think we should call the Avengers let's start with the helmet we're gonna make a base first the base of the helmet actually starts a little bit higher on

the head and then it goes all the way around right to the base of the head it tapers in cut little slits in along sides now these tabs will fold down fold it over so you want to continue to glue along those lines one bit at a time

[Music] let's make the side pieces trace the inside curve draw the outside edge there's a circular piece it starts from the top of the helmets then juts down so we'll just trace that very bottom of the helmet has like a tab that comes out get one side done

and then you can trace the other sides and now you have two sides glue these to the inside reinforce the outside with gaff tape reinforce the inside with duct tape there's this cool texture on the inside we have this non-slip mat for that we're gonna need some caps

for the sides so we're gonna use Tupperware lids we're not gonna actually attach these to the helmet because we're gonna need this to rotate but we are gonna drill a hole in the middle take the helmet outside and paint all that black there's no one right we've got

our helmet nice and spray-painted now we're going to put on some of the metal details we're gonna start with the back we're going to use a water job [Music] so for that like grid were using straws [Music] now we're gonna do these two slivers of metal on each

side [Music] there's a center line that runs alongside those straws and for that we're using some jump rope we need to make kind of a spine for all of this to set on the silver pieces that are running like a ladder over the top for those pieces we're

gonna use our water jug has these ridges that are perfect and it's full of water we don't want to waste water so what chug chug chug chug chug oh wow she even even drank the label on [Laughter] [Music] there is some detail cut into the edges all the

ends are tapered and just slightly [Music] we're not going to glue these to the helmets because we want to spray-paint all of these silver first we've got our silver pieces all nice and sprayed so our next step is to attach this tab to the end of that back

plate running that tab from the front running that all the way to the back of the helmet [Music] okay so this is our helmet with all the bug pieces and with our little back piece there I really have to try this on that's alright so what's next next

we're ready for the face plate that's right let's do it so for the face plates we're using this bowl because it already has a curve to it you could also make this thing entirely out of cardboard [Music] I'm using a dremel tool just because it's quicker but you

can also use a saw or box cutter for the end of the faceplate we've got a Tupperware container [Music] come eyes near the mask Yankee right okay let's do the mouthpiece for the front of the mask use the end of our Gatorade bottle there are two tabs at

the end of the mouthpiece now it's time for the yo-yos pop those off in two halves and glue those halves onto those side tabs we found wooden beads that were pretty awesome to use for this ball joint just to make this whole thing secure and so that we

can attach stuff to it we're gonna make a wire base out of a coat hanger we have these plastic salad tongs that look perfect for the joint part here on the sides the in piece is a chip clip for the cap on the end of used the top

of a water bottle so of course this would not be ant-man without the antenna and I'm making those out of safety cabinet locks for the mouth mechanism to move we're using compasses because they have axles already in them and they stay in place too so that'll help out

and zip-tie those rights to those chip clips and there you have it our completed mouthpiece I think it's time to spray-paint [Music] it is time for the gloves and we found these at the 99-cent store the rubber work gloves it says do not use on electrical work or

firefighting they didn't say anything about crime fighting the first part I noticed is there's like a main box that tapers we're not cutting all the way through or just score it away we can bend it and I'm going to cover this all with aluminum foil tapes will be

nice and shiny and metallic [Music] there's all these little boxes that run around his wrist and we're gonna make those 2d and then we've got straws to fill in the space between the top and the bottom piece so now let's put the veins in those are the tubes

on the hand got some great jump rope here I'm gonna be taping the ends right onto the glove I'm gonna run these in between each knuckle [Music] for the buttons on the index finger we've got flashlights they have awesome little buttons that kind of pop on and off

the button is red we're just going to customize that with a little bit of red duct tape superglue or hot glue isn't really gonna work on this metal button on this rubber glove so we're gonna just wrap an elastic band around the index finger to create a surface

that the glue will take to the gray looks awesome I feel like it'd be cool to add some like aluminum foil tape or something like that looks a little more shiny really glad we put the aluminum foil on these tubes and makes a little pop legit let's move

on to the belt hook the centerpiece of the belt lights up and so we're using a tap light spray paint the case silver and the inside is red so spray-paint that metallic insert it's not red enough so we're using a folder with a buckle there's a specific shape

around our tap lights zip tie Arbuckle to the cardboard base these details on the side like tooms use the straws for this [Music] there are three boxes on the belt for those we are using little Tupperware containers [Music] there are a couple of buttons for those we use

a water bottle caps [Music] oh there's our belt now put on the red decals for the lights we need to be able to close up the belt we're using a little bit of velcro grand-finale is to put the tap lights on there [Music] and that is our ant-man

belt for the suit we have a mock turtleneck and then some black leggings there are a couple of red details on the suit and for that we're using this red jersey the first thing that we need to do is to make a template that we will trace on

to the red fabric cut that out and then trace those shapes onto the red shirt just hot glue goes right to the shirt and the pants some of the tubing details will be using metallic puffy paint [Music] and we may be using some other materials like cardboard to

fill in some of the details shoelaces and wrapping them in aluminum foil tape there's some parts of the suit that have a different texture like the elbows and the kneepads we have black socks that have a really cool texture tube for the backpack on the suit we're using

a Tupperware container [Music] at the ends of ant-man shoes there's a little small kind of a t-shape so we just cut that out of some of the jersey fabric and attach it to the shoe using hot glue a couple details to finish up on the faceplate are the

two red strips on the forehead we're cutting out a small panel of red gel for the inside of the faceplate you could also use clear bio folders or dividers there is some trim around the eyes and we're using electrical tape we have two LED lights to put on

the inside of the faceplate and these little lights shine on your face and it looks really cool attaching the faceplate to these lids we're gonna glue them right onto the tabs using a wire coat hanger bend the end 90 degrees run it through the red cap and secure

that to the red cap and then run that through our side into the helmets and then once inside the helmet bend it another 90 degrees secure that with tape and glue and then do that to the other side for the mouthpiece drill two holes into the red lid

yep on either side of the compass feed a bit of zip tie take that compass close that zip tie around the compass and then that is able to move up and down freely I've worn many homemade superhero costumes in my days this has got to be the greatest

this is like this makes me feel like a superhero and that's how you make a homemade ant-man suit thanks for watching and be sure to check us out on Facebook Instagram and Twitter because we're going to be posting a couple of templates from this build as well as

some exclusive photos that's right and come back in two weeks because this bad boy is gonna be in our homemade ant-man trailer so you'll want to make sure you subscribe to the fix that's right man away if that lease it's not working [Music]

Fused – Glued Suit vs. Half-Canvas vs. Full – Canvas Jacket Construction – Get the Best Value Suits

Welcome back to the Gentleman's Gazette! In today's video, we discuss the differencesbetween a glued suit or a fused suit, a full canvas suit, and in between, the half canvassuit.

When you go out and buy a suit today, no matterif it's offline or online, chances are you encounter these terms often used by salesmento lure you in to spend more money.

Now, a lot of salesmen use these terms interchangeablyand we want to help you to get the most value for your money when you buy a suit.

Don't expect the salesman to know what they'retalking about, you should know what you get so you don't get cheated.

So first of all, why do you need an interliningor a canvas in the first place? Basically, fabric is two-dimensional.

It's woven, it's flat.

A suit is three-dimensional so the interlininghelps to keep the garment in it's three-dimensional shape so it's flattering to your body.

Now for the interlining, you basically havethree options.

It starts with glued or fused, half canvas, and full canvas.

With full canvas being the best and fusedbeing the cheapest and not so good option.

Let's start with the cheapest option and workour way up.

Fused or glued interlinings are the numberone thing in the sewing industry today simply because they're inexpensive and you can produceit in a mass scale very easily and cost effectively.

So what are the advantages apart from it beingcheap? Well, it does the job, it gives the garmenta three-dimensional shape.

The problems however are manifold.

First of all, because it is glued, there'snot much flexibility in the garment and you can feel it because it feels less comfortableand it does not stretch when you move.

Usually, you do get a chest piece that helpsto form that three-dimensional shape that looks very masculine, however, in a garmentof that category, you usually get something more inexpensive such as a cheap cotton orlow-quality wool blend.

My big pet peeve with fused or glued garmentsis that they are much more insulating and less breathable which makes me overheat morequickly and sweat.

Generally, whenever I touch a fused garment, it feels somewhat limp and depending on what chest piece it has, it could be stiffer orsofter.

Overall, it's just a very unexciting feel.

With a fused interlining, you also don't endup with a nice lapel roll.

Usually, they're quite flat which looks unexciting.

Usually, it's a hallmark of a cheap gluedsuit.

Because of the interlining, sometimes it alwayskind of stands in an awkward manner and there's really nothing you can do about it, it justlooks off to a trained eye.

Moreover, these fused jackets are not madeto last because eventually, they will come loose and at that point, it'll form ugly blisterson your lapel and on the outside, that's when you have to throw the garment away.

So, when you buy a fused suit, you're partof the throwaway economy because the resources that are used have to be thrown away and it'salso bad for your wallet because even though the initial investment is low, you have tobuy it over and over again.

if we look at a graph, it starts out withbeing quite good but today, you wear it, it just deteriorates over time and then at onepoint in time when you get the blisters, you can throw it away and it's worthless.

Next up, let's talk about the full canvasconstruction which is the traditional way a tailor made a suit.

First of all, the only disadvantage of thismethod is tha it's quite time-consuming and therefore expensive, however, it has manyadvantages.

First of all, the interlining is sewn to thefabric and as such, it is flexible.

So when you move, it moves with you, it'scomfortable, there are no pressure points, over time, the garment actually gets better.

On top of that, you can really decide whatkind of stiffness you go for.

For example, the jacket I'm wearing here rightnow is extremely soft, it feels more like a sweater and it has some structure when Istand still but if you see the wrinkles here, they just stay like that.

On a traditional suit, tailors used horsehair because it was very stiff and springy and it could keep the shape even though youwrinkle it.

For example, when I touch this, it springsright back in shape as if nothing ever happened.

So this is actually a vintage rowing blazermade in England in the 60's.

It's much stiffer and feels like it but ithas this crisp look that you sometimes know from military garments or evening wears suchas tuxedos or tailcoats.

However, if I really want to look my best, I go for something crisp and springy because it simply has the most beautiful lines.

Also if you go with a stiffer interlining, it smoothens over any kind of bumps or imperfections in your body so it would be much more easierto fit.

It takes about an hour per lapel to sew thecanvas to the fabric so it stays in shape and looks good.

Fortunately, it doesn't wear out and if youlook at it on a graph, the handmade jacket gets better as you wear it and you will neverhave issues with blisters and you wear the fabric out before there's any issue with thecanvass/ To achieve the lapel roll, you have to take the interlining, the canvas, and thefabric, angle it and then sew it, that way it stays in shape and will always go backto that angle.

Let's assume this is my fabric and this ismy interlining, if I sew them together like this and I move them afterwards, they willalways go back in this position, If I start sewing them together like this and I movethem back to the middle, they will always bring back and that's the idea of a lapeland that's when you get this nice lapel roll that stays in shape.

The lapel roll is a hallmark of a handmadejacket or suit.

To cut costs, the German company Strobel cameup with a machine that enabled to sew the lapels while they're angled but first, theyhad to be operated by hand but it saved a lot of time.

Today they have the KA-ED machine which sewsit fully automatically and you can do a lapel in one minute.

The great thing is, it comes with a left sideand a right side because the lapels or angled in a different direction.

A good operator can work on two machines atthe same time which means you actually get four lapels in one minute.

Throughout an 8-hour day, someone could makeanywhere from 600-1000 suit lapels whereas by hand, you can end up just making about6-10.

Obviously, that's a lot more efficient andif you produce quality suits in a mass scale, it really makes sense.

However, it also has its price, the machineof that caliber, costs $100, 000.

It's really fun to look at this machine andsee the sensors, it's basically like a typewriter and just recognizes when it's done so it'svery easy for the operator.

Now, some people say the quality is not asgood as if it is made by hand.

Actually, we tested it, the jacket I'm wearinghere right now has one lapel padded by hand and the other one padded by a machine andthere's really no discernible difference.

They both roll, they're both quality and themachine-made product can be as good as the hand-made product in that instance.

Now even if you work with a machine, you havedifferent parts such as the top part of the jacket and the bottom part.

If you do a full canvas construction, it takessome time.

For that reason, the half canvas constructionwas invented.

it basically takes the best of both worldsin a sense that it takes a good chest piece that is sewn and lasts for a while with thecheap part of the glue to keep the cost down.

It's called hal canvas but in fact, it's morelike a 2/3 canvas with 1/3 of a glued interlining.

The only reason to ever go with half-canvasversus full canvas is to save on cost.

So if you don't want to compromise in termsof quality, you should always opt for the full canvas.

However, if you can't afford full canvas, a half canvas garment is much superior to a glued interlining because it's more breathable, more comfortable, you don't overheat, and it lasts longer.

Personally, I'd always rather save for a fullcanvas construction but that's just my personal opinion and each to his own.

At the end of the day, it's important to keepin mind that everything has its purpose but if you can afford it, opt for the full canvas.

If not, go for the half canvas and personally, I'd suggest to always stay clear of the glued canvas unless there's really no other wayfor you than to go with a glued interlining.

If you want to learn more about suits, pleasecheck out our $100 vs $1000 or our $500 vs $5000 suit video.

and you can also learn more about the terminologiesbehing RTW, off-the rack, MTM, and bespoke in this video, here.

If you liked this video, please give us athumbs up and subscribe to our YouTube channel and hit that little bell so videos like thiscome right to your inbox.


(NO SUITS!) Look Amazing Dressing DOWN – Casual Comfortable Style | RMRS Videos

Casual Comfortable Style[0:00:00] There’s a rumor out there that I sleep ina suit.

Guys, that’s not true.

On my days off, I do dress down.

However, when I’m going to the grocery storehead to the post office, I still like to look good.

Today’s video is how to look great whenyou’re dressed down.

[Music]So, I’m breaking this video up into two parts.

First up, I’ve got the five rules that everyman needs to follow when he wants to look sharp, look great, but still dressed down.

Next up, I’m going to get into all theseclothing behind me.

I’m going to talk about individual piecesthat should be in your wardrobe.

Are you ready? Rule number one.

Respect the dress code.

So, if it calls for a business attire, itdoesn’t matter how great your casual outfit is, it does not meet the dress code requirementand therefore it’s the wrong clothing.

So, guys, just pay attention.

There is always a dress code even if it’sunwritten, unspoken, you need to pay attention.

Make sure that you dress appropriately becauseI think casual clothing that’s great, I absolutely love it, I think you can look sharp, but it’s not going to fit the need if it calls for formal, semi-formal, or businessattire.

Next, know the style pyramid – fit, function, and fabric as it applies to casual clothing.

First up, let’s talk about fit.

So, when you’re buying business clothingespecially a suit, you’re going to get that adjusted to fit you oftentimes because thecompany has a tailor right there that can adjust it, not always with casual clothingand this is where a lot of guys drop the ball.

Understand, fit is king.

A company that may be had one size fits all, that’s not great because one size does not fit all.

You want to find one that actually breaksit out into multiple different sizing categories, so you’re more likely to get the perfectfit.

So now, let’s talk about function.

Both of these right here they are jacketsboth of them are great, but the style is very different.

This is a casual bomber style, so it’s goingto fit into the dress code category, casual maybe ultra casual.

This jacket over here is going to be casual, business casual because of the style.

So, make sure when you’re picking piecesyou understand the function of where it’s going to fit in the dress code.

Now, let’s talk about fabric and that’sthe build quality that’s the actual material that the clothing is made from.

You can also see how fabric has an effecton formality.

So, luxury fabrics such as wool are oftentimesgoing to be the most formal of the casual fabrics, then cottons, and then synthetics.

Now, I love synthetics and where they’vegone in the last twenty to thirty years, but it is something that synthetics in generalare going to be more casual.

Now, guys, I want to talk about a clothingcompany that embodies everything I just talked about and that’s Public Rec, the paid sponsorof today’s video.

And, for over two years, guys, I have beenusing their products, loving their products because this is where they fill the void.

You know when you get home from work and youwant to lounge around, but you still maybe got errands to run, you want to look greatwhen you’re running around town.

Guys, that is what Public Rec is all about, so I want you go check out their all day everyday pant.

This is their best seller, but this is whatI love about the all day everyday pant is it comes in sizing 32-32.

Just like in jeans, they’ve got a ton ofSKUs, so instead of having small, medium, large, you actually have tons more sizingoptions.

And this is important, you know, if you’rehard to fit.

And they have more than just trousers, guys.

So, if you’re looking for a jacket, if you’relooking for a polo, if you’re looking for a Henley like what like what I’m wearingright here is Public Rec.

Guys, I’m linking to Public Rec down inthe description of this video with the best discount code you’re going to find out there, guys.

Use it or lose it.

That’s RMRS18.

Go check them out, awesome company.

The next rule of casual dressing, nail yourgrooming.

Guys, I think grooming is more important whenyou dress casually than even when you’re dressed sharp in a suit.

So, let’s talk about your hair.


So, you want to make sure it’s cut, makesure your hair looks good like you put in some effort.

Carry a comb if needed.

Keep your hair in check.

Next up, let’s talk about facial hair.

The key here, you don’t want it to get outof control.

So, if you’re going to the gym on a weekendmaybe you’re not going to shave, but if you’re potentially going to meet with aclient right afterwards, yes, you do want to shave, you want to get the job done.

Electric razor right in your vehicle, youcan shave right before you go into the gym.

Now, if you’ve got a beard, use a beardtrimmer.

Don’t let that thing get out of control.

I like beard, but I don’t like somethingthat’s all over the place, it makes you look like grizzly Adams.

Next up, your nose hair.

Gentlemen, have a nose hair trimmer and useit.

Next up, let’s talk about accessories.

So, you’re taking a weekend trip, well, this one right here this backpack, I love backpacks, but they scream student.

So, this one right here, it screams stylish, a very nice leather weekender.

Understand, guys, accessories carry more weightwhen you’re dressing casually because your clothing isn’t grabbing as much attention.

So, the accessories, you may want to bringin a bracelet, maybe you want to wear earrings, have a necklace, maybe a nice watch, and sunglasses.

Don’t forget, guys, great shades can levelup your style.

So, the next rule is to understand that colorand texture have a lot more weight in casual style than they do in formal styles becauseformal styles what we’re going to see, black, gray, dark blue, those are going to dominate.

But, all of a sudden in casual styles, youcan start to bring in dark rich hues of red and a variety of other colors and they’regoing to look great, they’re going to be right at home.

[0:05:07]So now, I’m going to talk about color and texture wearing a number of these jacketsand kind of show you guys the differences.

So, this jacket right here, the style is aquilted jacket.

That right there is casual and then the colorright here is a brighter green, this is going to be a very casual sporty jacket.

Now, let’s look at this jacket, similarstyle, it’s a quilted jacket, but notice that it has buttons.

Buttons are going to be more formal than azipper.

Also, notice the color, it’s a deeper green.

This is going to be slightly more formal thanthe other jacket I was wearing.

So, notice we’ve stuck with the color green, but we’ve gone to a totally different style of jacket.

This is going to be more of a moto/bomberstyle.

And, we’ve gone to a suede, a textured leatherthat is actually going to be pretty casual, but is going to be a step up from those othertwo jackets I just showed you.

So, I switched colors now, but we’ve stuckwith another classic design, but it actually is a great functional piece keeps you warmand, again, I think adds a lot of style.

So, that’s a quick hack, if you want toadd any bit of style to your casual outfit, throw in a classic piece.

Sticking with blue, but going much more casualwe’ve got the denim jacket aka the trucker jacket.

I’m going to recommend that if you’regoing to wear this, wear this as outer wear and make sure that with your pants your trousersor whatever you’re wearing it with, do not go with an exact match.

So, colors like these I think would work greatwith the dark blue that you see here.

So, now, I’m wearing a jacket again, butnotice the style, a style that you guys are used to seeing me in my more formal look, but this is a classic design.

Now, we’re missing something here and, boom! I look much better.

Guys, remember anytime on a jacket that you’vegot that breast pocket, stuff it with a pocket square.

So, now, we’re getting to some rapid firestyle advice.

This is great for game day, but stains andage, nope, this isn’t something you normally want to wear.

Now, this right here, very casual becauseof the overall style, all the details we see on this.

It’s nice, but it is very casual.

This is going to be a step up, its simplicityand its overall fit and design, also the nice drape and the makeup of the fabric.

Now, this right here, I think is even a stepup, the darker blue color.

It actually look great with a pair of bluejeans.

And then, this right here, wear a casual shirtunderneath, wear this over the top and that’s even going to be a higher level than a hoodie.

Now, vest, I absolutely them.

I think they can elevate your casual stylewardrobe.

The easiest way to bring this in is to gowith dark solid colors that are already used in your sports jacket collection or your otherjacket collection.

Now, when it comes to your casual shirts, maybe you don’t want to branch out, you’re scared to change up the color.

Well, guys, you guys know I love a dark blue, but change up the style just a bit.

So, all of a sudden I’ve got a pocket righthere, I’ve got contrasting buttons.

Maybe you like the light colored blue, tryan entirely different style.

This one, more of like the denim type of westerncowboy, it’s got the double breast pockets, it’s got the snap buttons.


So, natural earth tones, they work for me.

It’s not going to work for every color complexionout there.

But this right here an unusual color, butI think actually works great on my skin tone.

This one, again, a little bit different andsomething that’s very casual, but, again, is going to work for my tones.

And what’s fun is when you start bringingin some of these combinations.

This look right here, I absolutely love it.

Now, I know some of you guys are saying, Antonio, you said to bring in color.

Yes, you can bring in color, but understandthat brighter colors usually make something less formal and less interchangeable in yourwardrobe.

I love this, but this is going to stand outand if I were to go with a color like this same exact style, but this is going to betterwork in my wardrobe.

All right, gents, so I know a lot of you guyswant more.

You want more information on the Henley, moreinformation on the hoodie, how to bring this into you wardrobe, check out this video, howto build your ultra casual wardrobe how to dress ultra casual with style.

I get into athleisure I get into a numberof other pieces I normally don’t talk about in this video right here.

All right, guys, so let me know down in thecomments what do you think of this video.

And, don’t forget, go check out Public Rec.

If you have not been to their website in awhile, you’re going to enjoy it because they’ve got all new colors, they’ve got new designs, and I absolutely love the all day every day all the different options they got for thepants over there.

I’m linking to them down in the descriptionwith the best discount code you’re going to find out there.

Use it or lose it, guys.

Great company, I’m proud to support them.

And, let me know what do you think of thisoutfit? So, randomly I put this together as I’mfilming the video and I’m like, I like this.

I didn’t even think about this combination.

I felt like, again, gray is non-color, soit’s going to work with almost any shirt out there.

The trousers, I need to change them up, I’vegot gray trousers on.

Almost looks like I’m putting together asuit, but I think a dark blue jean with – with this combination here, oh, yeah, this is goingto – this looks good.

I’m going to probably wear it in anothervideo.

That’s it, gents.

Take care.

I will see you in the next video.

[0:09:58] End of Audio.

Adam Savage's One Day Builds: Refrigerated Cooling Suit!

Adam Savage here in my cave with myfriend Kipp Bradford how are you sir good and you very good I'm excited because weare about to explore a new Vista of cosplay technology now if you're aregular follower you know that I built myself a spacesuit from alien JohnHurt's suit and I wore Don the comic-con floor in San Diego in 2012 2014 in 2014and I almost got heatstroke wearing basically what was a quilt with armorattached to it so the very following year Chris Hadfield and I walked thefloor in a pair of 2001 spacesuits the silver clavia suits into which I'd builtan integral cooling system comprised of a bucket of ice water with arecirculating pump and cool shirts and that worked pretty well but Kip amongmany other things that he has done in his life as an engineer happens tospecialize in extremely tiny refrigeration units and we're hoping tobuild one here in the cave today small enough for me to use in cosplay so getready we're gonna get cold alright Kip where where do we startthere's a lot of little bits and bobs around the shop I'm not even sure I knowwhat this is yeah okay so where do we begin Adam this is that compressor okayoh this is the step that does Boyle's law that yes brings refrigeration andrecirculates the this stuff yep our gas that so what is it you compress it whenyou release it from compression the temperature lowers corrects and you getthe refrigeration that's exactly it so the compressor works just like anycompressor does there's a piston inside here in this case the piston is a rotarypiston so it spins around and as it does so is it a vane pump these are the vanepocket as a vane pump it sucks a gas into this inlet pulls it through thecompressor and increases the pressure just like Boyle's law PV equals NRT asyou increase that pressure the heat also temperature goes up because we're we'redoing mechanical work we put electricity in here that electricity is what's doingthat pumping right magnetic field turns the rotor the rotorthe vein the vein squeezes the gas we're doing work on the gas right so just likeif you're pushing down on a bicycle pump it can get hot it gets hot as you'redoing that work so the energy from your arms is transmitted into the pressure ofthat gas so gas gets hot as we do work to it and it gets compressed we can pushthat hot gas through another heat exchanger where we blow air over it andtake that heat away and when we take the heat heat away we're not just removingheat we're actually compressing the gas as well or we're actually just removingthe heat okay so the pressure the pressure from this output side staysconstant mm-hmm the temperature is what changes so wetake that constant pressure gas we blow the air over it and the reason why thepressure doesn't change is because even if we take all that heat away the gasitself is there's more new gas coming in from the backend so what happens is notthat it changes pressure but changes state we go from gas to liquidI see so because we're taking temperature out we can fit more gas inthe same volume we can fit more gas in the same volume okay that converts to aliquid and that liquid then goes to the other half of the system where we boilit off and what waving it off is how we get lower the temperature exactlyexactly see I don't have a refrigerator worksI'm logged that in my time just a little bit it's if you're an engineer you'llnotice as a reverse Rankine cycle okay a thermodynamic cycle that's fully closedloop and we do work with a piston or rotor or some kind of machinery thatdoes that compression so we're putting mechanical work into the system and wego from electricity to mechanical work to thermal and then we get rid of thethermal and then we reverse and come back on the cold side boil off turn to agas and the waste suck gas back in the inlet and it strikes me that this is anespecially tiny compressor am i right this is this is this is this one of thetiniest ones this is one of the tiniest compressors and this has a prettyfascinating story at the first Gulf War DARPA put out a callfor man portable wearable environmental control system Oh for just the exactthing we're exactly working on and they were did an RFP for tiny compressors yesand two companies one that RFP and one of those companies is Aspen compressorin Marlborough Massachusetts these are made in Kentucky the design of thecompressor is a fascinating MIT mechanical engineering PhD of course ofcourse makes these incredibly well balanced super small high-efficiencycompact compressors and when you say well-balanced that means that thecompressor is efficient because it's not losing any of its energy to vibration sowhen it's highly balanced you have a smooth system and all the energy isgoing where you want exactly and it means that if you're if you're wearingit you're not gonna get all that but vibration on tears Oh back it's notgonna make a ton of noise if you ever have your shop compressor turn on in themiddle of night and you hear that man oh I have to put a timer on apposite wakesmy neighbor's up exactly yes I know a normals live upstairs and sometimes wemake their lives worse I don't know they've never complained about the kindof music I love the story okay so the great thing about the DARPA story isthat DARPA puts this call out and they get a couple companies that respond toit with these super compacts and compressor technologies and they quicklyrealize that putting people in spacesuits in the middle of the deserttrying to fight a war is a bad idea right because if you have any kind ofsystem failure they're super compromised right awayimmediately compromised but we get this cool technology out of it and thisnotion that we can make very compact refrigeration and cooling systems usinga portable low voltage DC compressor technology so the original purpose ofthis being fighting wars with with people in these crazy suits yeah not thesmartest idea the result has been I think fairly transformative for a lot ofmedical applications I use these for a medevac system that couldstabilize people's temperatures in medevac helicopters after traumaticinjuries on their way to a hospital their way humbly nothing substantive isgetting done you can actually bring their doctors down Wow so found someother uses for it made some fun projects and the last system I built was theworld's second smallest wearable air conditioner couldn't quite get it to bethe smallest just got to be the second smallest and that is currently in a NASAspacesuit simulator that's running around somewhere in the world pretendingto be in Mars oh simulation space they're kind of like what the guys arewearing on high seas experiment it was the high so okay Oh fabulous fabulousthe the thing we're gonna build is a replica of the high seas basically airconditioner oh my god I'm that's really exciting one I follow the high seasexperimentation project for years obviously I revere what those guys haveput themselves through and I know the complications of that program but also Ilove those suits and are great I love reading about how much they love theirsuits like they fall in love with them okay so what is it for obviously this isthe centerpiece of this but how do we start to make our assemblies so this isour centerpiece and there are two other pieces that we need we need a heatexchanger to reject the heat mhm and we need another heat exchanger to absorbheat one of those heat exchangers that's rejecting the heat is going to go fromrefrigerant which is a gas in this case to air okay and we'll have a fan blowingair over that the second heat exchanger will go from liquid refrigerant as isvaporizing to cool water and that water will then circulate through your coolshirt ah okay right so there'll be a heat exchanger between the right so itwould need like a big aluminum plate that's touching the water or somethinglike that something like that will actually use a stainless steel heatexchanger that will go directly from the boiling refrigerant into the water ohinto it oh okay and we'll tune the system a little bit so that the waterdoesn't freeze or you can also use alcohol instead of water and great Ihaven't money on that even colder ah yes let's do alcohol so let's see I lovethat idea aye aye sir purple will that work isopropyl works I actually tend touse alcohol with vodka oh yeah great yeah we'll send out for avodka there's plentiful in the mission to serve and hasten why vodkas great isbecause it's non-toxic depending on how much you drink since I don't drinkthat's fine so shall we gather the parts over herelet's gather the fire okay all right these are both versions of the samething these are two versions the same thing and we have a big huge changer andthen a smaller key exchanger now the high seats project uses this smallerheat exchanger mhm and the high seas project is not so noise sensitive mm-hmmwe can have a little bit more noise generated and it doesn't cause a problemfor you though I think we want to go with a bigger heat exchanger okay and aquieter fan so the weight is not much different no there's fairly negligibleso sure yeah listen I can accommodate great something this large and thenwe're also gonna take two other heat exchangers over the table we'll talkabout these two as well because they're pretty neat technologiesAspen compressor a US company made in US that has just some really niftytechnology and it's hard to get refrigeration components in lowquantities most of these companies they don't sell to consumers or individualsnow he did not sell the consumers and individuals but if you go to an HVACstore you're not gonna find compressors like this you're not gonna find composedlike this right they sell repair parts of those HVAC stores so it's difficultto build the supply chain knowledge to know where to get this stuff these twocomponents are US made this is a heat exchanger from the company called allcoil which is in New York Pennsylvania and they make small quantity componentsgreat for specialty applications like what we're doing if I was to go to acompany say in China or Thailand that makes these for refrigerators or airconditioners the minimum orders gonna be 10, 000 units okay answer the phone foryou you have to send them a check for 10, 000 units and then then they'll talkright all coils great because you can order one oh and to be clear about thatstructure of this this is just a wide flat tube yeah and throughwhich the material passes and all of this are simply surface area thataluminum meant to shed the heat correct okaythat is super cool so this is called a micro channel heat exchanger and it haslittle micro channels that run along the length of each of these serpentines sothere's maybe a hundred channels from top to bottom here and we push gas inthis end the gas flows through and because we're pulling so much heat outthe gas is a liquid by the time incorrect the other side erects and it'sfreaking cool that is really really nifty and see all the way through thisthing and the larger the heat exchanger for a given amount of gas that we'retrying to cool the more surface area we have to call that gas and the less airthat we need to blow over the any given surface Scott it so the bulk air flowcould be the same but if the bigger fan I make for a given amount of air flowmm-hmm the slower and quieter the fan can get so if I have a really tiny fanand I'm blowing say Exner of CFM x / CFM I have high velocity it was loud rightright if I double the size I quadruple that surface area and I can reduce thevelocity proportionally right and then also have have quieter fan bladesbecause they're not slicing through the air what is okayso the bigger fan means that it's quieter right okay it also means that wecan really crank your system up if you want if you're like I need 800 watts ofcooling good things to know about the body as we're standing here right nowwe're not being very active we're dissipating about 100 watts ofheat I'm talking about okay hot light bulb those incandescent light bulbs Iguess the kids might not know about those yeah kids yeah the brightest lightbulbs 100 watts and it got really hot it got really hot so and that's what we'rethat's we're putting out kind of the same amount of heat over our entire ourentire bodies okay so it's a room temperature thiscompressor can pull out a couple thousand watts really you crank it up tothe max Wow so we're not going to need to do that to keep you cold but if youdecide that you want to sprint through comic-con's doesn't just crank the knobup and amazing amazing okay I'm just really psyched about so we've got aconfessor we got the heat exchanger that we're gonna get rid of the heat with andwe're gonna position this above the compressor okay we have a heat exchangerthat we're gonna boil the refrigerant in and I brought two options here and Ithink we're gonna use the larger option for you okay for several reasons one isthis is a called a brace plate heat exchanger and it's stainless steel weput refrigerant in these tubes those tubes and water through those tubes Idon't know don't fret but they exchange heat between the twoyep freakin cool and we can attach some fittings to this end which less blowwater through here and then into your suit WowMPT it's actually a not it's a British straight pipe thread and the reason whyBruce straight pipe threads are used for these is instead of a taper instead ofNPT okay so the taper thread is basically a compression stretchingfiction fit so you're literally stretching the metal and tighten thatdown and that's great except once you've got that preload you have to maintainthe preload or else the fitting fails and if your heating and cooling andheating and cooling and doing this ignition putting a lot of movement andyes and it's gonna work itself away it works itself loose and no matter howmuch the thread lock you put in that eventually will work itself loose soamazing I a made in my book when I was writing the chapter on glue that was oneof the hardest parts to write list you've got to think about what the gluesgonna go through yes and it's expanding and cooling that means it's gonna workitself away from this or that material if it's not the same material propertyexactly exactly so we use a straight thread and then theseal is created with a gasket no and that gasket just provides a little bitof preload and if the gasket ever you know maybe ten years from now the rubberhardens you unscrew it another one pop another one okay good to go all right Ilike this this is great so we hook these components up with some copper tube andthere one piece that's missing here we use the compressor to put work into thesystem right and then we exchange heat with this first heat exchanger yeah nowwe have to create some way to reduce the pressure so we keep the high pressureside high pressure we have to drop the pressure so that the refrigerant willboil right so we have liquid coming out of the bottom of this heat exchanger wewant to blow that liquid off and if you think about water in space the vacuum ofspace mmm is a loan of pressure that water will just boil off and as it doesit will absorb heat right this is the same thing we have a pressure low enoughthat this substance here which is our refrigerant mm-hmm will boil at thepressures on the low-pressure side of the system and this is a new kind ofrefrigerant that doesn't add to the ozone hole that's correctly closing likefreon used yep okay so this was developed as a replacement to freon inthe early 90s and does not destroy the ozone layer and not many people know butamong human beings many crimes the ozone hole is about to become an ex humancried like it's closed it's been closing steadily over the past nine years asindustry has responded yeah and very occasionally we see blips of risingrising your factories in China I think there's a recent story I heard that andthe Amazon and fires also help you out a tribute to the yeah so but we're so howdo we create that low pressure system so we tried that low pressure system withthe copper tubing equivalent of a resistor it's basically just a flowresistance that you can either use a small nozzle to create that pressuredrop yeah so you have a high pressure behind a nozzle you have low pressure infront of the nozzle yeah or we can use a long length of copper tubing so Oh anylength of pipe will create resistance and friction as the fluid flows throughit and it literally operates exactly like a resistor which does it withelectrons but does it with fluid exactly so the whole analogy of electrons towater pressure is actually still works it's still tracks yeah yeah that's greatthe copper tubing will use the length is going to create the pressure drop and wecan change that length that change the pressure drop and that's gonna have aneffect on the temperatures that you'll feel great so we're gonna pick somethingthat will give us a little bit below freezing for you at a high speed settingwith compressor terrific I'm gonna action getting us some vodka in the shopand I also have a new cool shirt that's actually a full body perfect suit andthat's the one I want to try I bought it's actually a 1980s BritishRAF cool suit for high-altitude fliers but that tubing all feels like it's goodit's still like extant and flexible excellent excellentawesome um well you got two that I'm gonna get those broad right right that'sexcellent and the tubing is perfect it's feel its weight hunger than I thought ohyeah yeah that's great so there's some big ones that run out I haven'tpressurized this but my cursory inspection led me to believe that it isin pretty good shape yeah this is expensive and the tubing goes you knowit's funny cuz this is the other question I have is there must beoptimizations you can make for flat tubing that has a greater skin contactyes and thus a better heat exchange so there there is the funny thing there isa discovery in the early 2000s from some researchers at StanfordDennis gran being one of them that you get the best heat exchange through theparts of your body that don't have hair on them so your palms soles of your feetyour face and you can do more heat exchange through those surfaces than byputting a suit around your whole body oh my god but I think putting the suit onyour whole body creates perceived comfort in addition to actual heatexchange and right and that's really important too there couple water pumpoptions oh look at that and this is gotta have a water tank haha ha ha that's the oh that's the size that you need it doesn't need to bebigger don't need to be bigger than that so this is the exact size that's in thethe high seas suit Wow Wow Wow and this is a different one this is a differentone that's a tank and pump built-in ooh that's kind of sexy to know I figuredyou might appreciate that oh my gosh this is amazingsince it as an engineer I appreciate less complexity equals more reliabilityso I'm inclined to go with the pump reservoir combo what do you think weshould try them both out the nice thing is we can build the refrigerationcircuit right and have that be a standalone thing and then you can andthen play around with the options okay long so great I have the in the CADright there there's a little pump that is right here mm-hmmthis is this amazing British $200 really high-quality high-pressure super quietwater pump and I didn't get a chance to grab it because I was running late tothe airport Oh we'll just use the one that I shipped this is great this lookslike a kind of almost like a bait pen like yeah we need some LEDs in there yesokay so what is the first step for assembly it's really the first step forassembly is we want to set the components up so we've got two heatexchangers that we're gonna need to basically position and then brace somecopper tubing into okay and if we go with the drawings that I've made I thinkthe ideal setup is going to be something along the lines of this okay so do youneed me to make a bracket so we can make a bracket or I think the the processthat usually is to do this is positioning the parts and then figuringout what the copper tubing run should be and we've got a the high seas model thatwe're starting with but we're gonna use a different heat exchangeI use with high seas so the high seas system used this heat exchanger which Ihaven't talked about yet okay I talked about that for a second okaywhat's different between this heat exchanger in this one it's a m– thingtwo different channels for different liquid right that are kept opposed toeach other yes yep and this heat exchanger is a stack of steel plateswith some ridges on them and the steel plates are pressed together put in afurnace and then the furnace raises like surface mount electronics almost exactlyokay and the that stack you can see these these kind of channel formedchannels and the the way this bottom plate is a pan all the rest of theseplates have that same pan feature okay so you stock all the highs up mm-hmm andthe pans alternate refrigerant water refrigerant water for the water thebrazing process is is you could do this with a torch yeah but doing it in afurnace gives you good uniformity this heat exchanger is also steel plates butthese are flat steel plates with and they didn't have the channel have beenetched so those plates are thin enough that we can use actually processes andthis is then vacuum furnace bonded and the bonding process involves heating upyou put it a dissimilar metal bracket around it and that similar bracket whenyou heat this the steel expands more than the bracket does so as the steel isexpanding the bracket creates a compressive force that diffusion bondsthe layers of steel together good god with with Wowso we we can etch micro channels in using photo lithography processes thatare super precise we get a much smaller more compact unit that isn't doesn'tquite have the capacity of this but you can see is that's an impressive thesmall thing heat exchanger is something that can cool down a human body that isis rated at 800 watts of cooling some believe this is rated about 1.

2kilowatts of cooling and and this is so efficient becauseyou can get high amounts of precision in the etching process and that's a lot offlow through it even though it's really tight a lot of float a lot of surfacearea for exchange right right right the surface area is everything surface areais everything and the difference in price of these is also pretty funnythis is maybe 40 $50 get them made in a factory overseas this is about $400 so10x difference in costs okay I see super super cool technology from one-offprojects those those aren't crazy price points but for any business venture thatis variant difference you really have to have a need for using something thatsize we're going to use this mostly because we can put threaded fittings onright and make it really easy to interface directly with your suit andpump and when you're holding this up here and this goes with this I wouldlove to know if these pipes can be there while I have a lot of room for to put inlet's say fake place for a space suit this space will be a premium so I'd loveto keep that dimension this X dimension as narrow as possible assume we can cutthese a little bit tighter we're not gonna cut them we're gonna bend thoughokay great so I've got some metal benders too and some flames tools who weneed those and Bend you know the copper tubes around soit'll create a nice flat profile okay we'll keep everything in a line and thatway we can get our refrigerant out to our heat exchanger so we go out of thecompressor and we go up to the top to of the heat exchanger that way notice thegas works its way back and forth and gets to condense down to liquid theliquid drops to the bottom and then the bottom comes out and then goes to thebottom of this heat exchanger okay where we boil up so we end up with a gas atthe top okay and then alright so there's a direction to this there is a directionokay yeah and then to mount this to this I'm assuming we need a little bit ofsome bracket äj– is that correct right it's will be good we can zip tieup but brackets are gonna be better okay ultimately I have endless numbers ofspacers and our little nuts and bolts and even allthread should be needed after we get everything positioned the way we wantwe'll mount it on a fixture great 80/20 a piece of wood just so that we canbraise it yeah once it's braised it'll hold the stuff together then we can makesure to measure and create a bracket that holds everything in to your suitfabulous don't put any strain on the join them to copper joint becausealuminum copper joints they're delicate they're very delicate oh that's lovelyyeah it's it's soft and I can guarantee that I'm not overloading the joint rightright right notice that it's it stays straight as itcomes out of here right I got most of the bend and that's important because wedidn't stress exactly at all exactly because if we lose these connectionsbrazing copper to aluminum is one of the hardest things I've ever tried to do Iwant to think about it don't even want to think about it succeeded betterpeople than me it conveys this John all right I'm gonna up a tube that's gonnacome out of the compressor and it's gonna need to get into here right so ifI flipped like that and then it comes in the top I can come out and beyond up inthe top okay that seems great so that makes that easy okay and then the tubethat comes out of the bottom is going to go into our expansion valve so we'regonna have something like this come in here we'll have a coil of some of thisand like I said the length will determine the temperature thatdetermines to the temperature are the length of this tube which gives us thepressure drop okay the speed of the compressor which tells us how much gaswe're moving how much mass of past a certain point right and then the amountof refrigerant that we have in the system so we want to balance those threethings and we've got some tools to do that okay how do we braise this to thisdoes that get braised or is it a pressure fence that's gonna be braisedwe're gonna braise all this stuff together so do we need to machine somespecific copper little couplers yeah you know we could machine them or we couldjust take a pair of pliers and crimp the soft copper tubing down around this ohreally yeah and that's do and then you just fill some amazing material you knowthat I do it just want you to see the coolthat day that I did invest in full retail rack or both of these but I'm allabout the simplest possible fusion doesn't know that I have this is good toknow one of the funny things about this tubing you saw how easy it was for me tobend yeah by hand yes this there are two styles of copper tubing forrefrigeration there's drawn tube and then there's aneel tube right the drawn tube is pretty rigid right because it's beenmechanically drawn yeah it means it's work hard work hardened yeah the annealtube after you draw it even baked so and the steel is release all of thosetensions of the crystals from inside yes and it's super bendable and it's reallyfun to work with so you don't need College to talk engineering we shouldnot mention how many degrees I have I have zero three I an honorary degreeswhich are worth just as they're worth nothing actually did believe it or not II think that the out of school education for me has been so much more informed somy background is I have a mechanical engineeringright right right this is all thermodynamics and what's really reallyfun about this is yeah I'll make fun of my education it's a fantastic educationand I it is certainly extremely well but when I took thermodynamics in college Icouldn't tell you what all these parts were how they worked what they did I canjust tell you the math behind what what they're supposed to be doing right rightand the gap between that theoretical knowledge and then understanding notjust like why do we have a capillary tube right but what these parts are howyou put them together that gap was pretty big in closing that gap not onlydid I take that theoretical knowledge and then the practical knowledge andrigid but it gave me a very deep appreciation for how these systems workand how you optimize them ago I behave and I think that's something specialthat we really need to get more engineers learning the practical sidesthey see that and get more of the technicians understanding a little bitmore of the science on Mythbusters we frequently had trouble when we call upone of the world's experts in the field we were trying to explicatebecause they'd be so much of an expert at the one thing they knew but theycouldn't discuss with us how it crossed correlated to this other part of thestore right and nothing exists within its own frame it's all reaching out todeal with other frames and so we found the polymaths the people with more wideranges of experience much more able to talk to speak to and adjust betweenmultiple fields it's it's amazing the contexts that connect something likethis and how much knowledge of this context really really helps put thosepieces together like okay I see a compressor I know what it does and thenI know the physics of what's happening so I understand what goes on inside theexchanger and what changes when I speed the compressor up or slow it down orchange the diameter of the capillary tube or change refrigerants from say our134a which is freon it's not only every change affects multiple other systemsyeah and so it's not just a simple of move this and this happens it's allthese cascading if I can change the chemistry of the refrigerants and thatchanges everything else in this is Wow and understanding what those effects areor change the speed of the fan and what's gonna happen how much liquidrefrigerant do I have left over when the speed of the fan goes up amazing allthose things are connected well I figure it doesn't matter how far it goes in noyeah okay so then the bend comes about here yeah you could start bending thereand because we're just gonna want to clear the fan and I'll stay in line withthe IC I kind of want to be in line with that valve at the bottom yep oh it's this is the best stuff to workwith so then once we have that and I think I can actually come in eventighter yep and then this comes around here and comes that way wow it lookslike I actually cut it I think you have excited it's just about the perfect sizeWow because if you didn't we could fudge ita little bit because we're gonna do the same thing we're gonna insert this intothe mouth of the compressor since that's a quarter-inchdon't pull that out yet okay so the reason why this has the plugs in it isthat the compressor has a oil that's a Palio ether oil mm-hmm andthat oil absorbs moisture and as it absorbs moisture it creates an acid andthat acid over time will eat away at the insides of the components so we don'twant to so I'm gonna cut this down by half inch cuz we don't need more thanthat just a little bit far oh yeah yeah yeah and how much copper to to stealbrazing experience you have hmm some oh I'll do the first one I'll tell you knowthe stuff that I use for everything is stay bright silver solder so we I'llgrab stay still 56 over 60 still 56 which is a high silver contentphosphorous bronze brazing rod the high silver is we always use it in specialeffects cuz it's strong it's really strong and it's just about the onlyreally sensible way to create the copper to stainless steel bond and I uh I wasdoing it to UM what did i buy oh those stainless steelchrome doesn't actually desert brass and then chromed balls and I'm able to tobraise brass to them nice right through the chrome yeah that's really nice thatis pretty awesome so we'll do that to copper to stainless here and so we'vegot that connection I think that's gonna look nice yeah we the bottom of this isgoing to come out and we're going to go into the capillary tube and willbasically spiral this down and come into the bottom the heat exchanger here sowe're gonna take a little quarter inch pipe and make a straight stub to comeout and we'll crimp that stub will crimp this into here all right will crimp isstub into here so we're kind of what we're doing right now is setting up allthe brazing we're going to exactly if we don't do a great job cleaning thecopper tubing those little copper filings will flow through the system andend up in the compressor we don't want that to happen so we use this filterdryer which has a little filter on the inside and I've have these made at afactory custom-built for me so that it's got the right diameter to slip right onthere and for our capillary tube to slip right in there if we didn't have thatthen we'd have to create fittings that make all these things fit together sothis will make it a lot easier perfect and that's really cleaned out with athree sixteenths reamer excellent so this atom is I brought a couple filterdrives cuz I didn't remember which size we're going to need but this has one theperfect fitting I'll just slip right on there and we're gonna slip that heresame thing now we're gonna have a maybe 30 to 32 inches of tube coiled that willgo from this point here down to this point here okay and the really nicething about that bender that you have is you can do clean hundred and eightydegrees yes that's nice yeah okay so then so then we're just gonna do180 full Bend yep from from right about here yep I'm no copper dust in there so perfectlook at that right there okay so then that goes there yep sothat's that's it those are the P really yeah oh wait but then there's this itgoes to do yeah so the rule like said we'll have this this one's gonna go hereyep and then the coil is gonna come out see how this is so nicely sized if itreally really sexy the only thing that we're gonna do that's gonna be tricky isand by tricky I mean slick and also difficult great is we need a fitting tobe able to add refrigerant and a fitting so that we can measure the performanceof the system okay so does that mean we need a little T of copper you know wecould use it T of copper but what I've found is that we can cheat a little bitand we can drill a hole into the side of the copper th and we're gonna braisethis in okay what that ends up looking likeso this joint mm-hmm is kind of uh oh that's crazyyeah didn't do that I did this way closer to the copper yeah we're notgonna do it that close because I think I probably got lucky there there's no reason to expect accuracyfrom drilled holes on them Fe so having Center drilled that we have a reallyclean hole now that's lovely get a nice fit there oh yeah oh good onething it's really important to always remember to take your Schrader cores outbefore brazing yes because the o-rings always that makes things bad thedecision as always we can fuck the flux this we're not really if we're doingcopper to copper and it's fresh clean copper like this flux is optionaloh I didn't realize that got a little bit of an orange tail Iwant to try to get that to be a little bit okay that's pretty good yeah it's a nicelittle it's that will keep that joint clean it's really important to flex this jointbecause we've got the dissimilar metals coming together and the flux is what'sgoing to allow the brazing material to flow in between the metals effectivelyso we want to get good coverage on the surfaces and it's going to make all thedifference so that should fill that material upclean that up to make sure we get some good flux coverage again and then we'regonna heat this sucker up secret here is we want to heat up thecopper first and the stainless steel last how's it going you here just forthat part so this is the copper to stainless brazing and this is a toughthing yes this is the tough thing so we hit up the copper because the copperconducts heat a lot battery well and it's just gonna pull the heat I giveaway and I'm just gonna keep stroking the copper whistle until it flows andthen I grinding again I just get the stainless a little bit make sure we getgood coverage dude and we got a really nice clean joint that's awesome you cansee how uniform that so you're actually feeding nitrogen in here while you'redoing it yep any we shut that down now you can examine cuz I actually uh fillsus with nitrogenous abstentions everything air Oh nitrogen that oftenjust sits there very cool so that's one joint and the only thing I'm gonna do isit's right here now we've made that joint I want to make sure that we flowthrough here yeah because if I screwed up that's never good so we should getthe puffs there we go Oh cuz you can see it step out there yeah if I fed too muchrolling the target I'll clog it up I've done that once yeah I've got about ahundred fifty systems and it's like let's never do that again and so nowyou're gonna do the same thing again with this one yeah alright it's alwaysterrifying brazing stuff there other stuff that's been braised yeah yepfortunately oh I see you needed the goggles that daythat shielding yeah I mean this is it's it's really not that hot of a flame butya know it's good practice because the oxy rig will make you blind for a dayyeah pay attention all right that looks good so should be reallyuniform some of that is definitely flux it's always good to clean the flux offand make sure that that's do you need a certificate to do that you need thehydro oxygen yeah okay I think I've got some yeah so that's that's the stainlessto copper and we can take advantage of these fittings once they're braised into fill the system with nitrogen amazing so we're gonna have this sitting herewe'll pop that into the and it's slightly long in case yeah well Iinstead of cutting out I just bend it up a little bit cuz it's it's so mucheasier right right right once we're yeah you should roll it yeahwe can roll it we can we can work with this straight piece here mm-hmmso the we're at that point where we can look at the last couple steps I alwaysdo the compressor last partly because the compressor has the oil in it butalso because we can get everything else set up and if anything has to gettweaked we can tweak it and then the compress will be the last joint to makeso there the next joint we can do if you want rest that tube on top of thecompressor you know the next joint will do is the coming out of here and thengoing down into here let me just dunk it in a glass of water right exactly is ithygroscopic we'll pull water back into the holes yeah okay so we want to get itup quickly so we'll hook it up while we're still pretty warm and I'm doingall the brazing with the high silver content material just because we canit'll look pretty when there's just a little in the back yeah see so I'm justgonna make sure it's got coverage good it's like that puppy on here oh and thenwe want to measure out I could do these separately but we'll do at the same timeokay guys stay selves why the heck not Oh use that as the SAS nice how can I dothis part that looks really fun there's this kind of thing thank you for lettingme play one part for inches off the end we can split an unsupported supersoftthat's perfect oh whoops oh yeah sorry I shouldprobably close up first there you go excellent so we're gonna stick this inhere mm-hmm get a little scotch brite and then oncewe get everything set up the last thing we'll do is unspool it insert it inthere and close everything up I guess and just a straight up tubefilled with desiccant right yep and there's a little mechanical filterstrainer filter on it as well so you're not doing anything but just improvingthe desk it by getting it hot right right nice wedding give that good weddingmake sure there's lots of extra in there so I try to avoid getting you that's allright I can take it all right and then one of the things again I'll do is makesure that I've got good flow and I didn't plug in a hole so I'm gonna holdmy finger over that you know and then ya feel that oh yeah oh nice yeah carefulabout breathing in that nitrogen yeah are you kidding just an asphyxiant rightthat's exactly exactly it so we're pretty good shape the final three jointsto do I think we'll do the compressor now and then the last one will do isthis okay so so now we actually want to pop out the plugs and the faster we doyeah this one the better works three perfect now we hit it okay just a littlebit cleaning there then this one will take a little sneakit around like that but more maybe we'll stick it underneath like that and thatgoes that'll go there so you want to put such bright that these are the other twotricky joints because heating up a painted compressor right with oil in ityes it's always it's fun and ok that's the steepest that one's going yeah soagain we could just do regular because it's so clean because it's clean andcopper to copper but it I think you'll enjoy the shiny silver finish along thebraze joints so now there's a fun bit where we canput pressure through here we should get something out of here and they'll put myfinger on here yeah and then that will pressure right here yepsee here that the little click in the compressor I'm hearing something leakingsomewhere yeah that leak is right here oh that's that yep that's put my fingerhere oh this tells me we have a complete circuit wait so yeah that's awesomewe've pressurized we've got pressure all the way back through our evaporator thecold side yeah we've got pressure through the compressor we're actuallypushing nitrogen through the compressor through this heat exchanger through thefilter dryer and then out the capillary tube which we will then hook up to herethis is the last braze connection we have to make and then you have a fullycompleted circuit we'll put that in a bucket of water yep will pressurize withnitrogen make sure there are no bubbles okay and then we know I've we have asealed system we can pull vacuum on it so incredible and then this is where thewater circulates yeah this is the business end that's the business end soelectricity in here cold out of here at this point everything is ready to go soall we got to do is bend this down and start it in here and use the pipecleaner also to make you stiff being out any authorization since we've done allthe brazing under dry nitrogen yeah it keeps the dryness make sure that wedon't get any water in the system any water in the oil the nitrogen part isnice because we can get it instantly it prevents an oxidation inside during thebraze it prevents the heat oxidation from causing like this kind of flake canyou see on the outside oh that would end up that comes amazing the flow rightthat ends up inside right and that that material the oxidized copper just clogsthe oil and over time it might take ten years it might take one year but overtime if you got enough of it right it caused the system to fail unroll it likethis and then do a kind of a twisty twistyeah and ice have it come down like that exactly and then it just would sit likethat to me is kind of nice perfect that seems like cheating it isso I have got a little bit of motion so I know that I didn't crimp down on thetube itself so I just closed this off and if you look at the end you knowthere's enough of a gap there all I got to do is fill that with Ray's materialsand then we're good this guy this is pretty easy joint because there's not alot of copper here just on the end just like that nice amazing and fast that isdone we have a fully built system now should be all done with the brazing partand we're ready leak test oh it's time to leak test it's time to leak to usokay so now you need a bucket no we need a bucket of water all rightkid this is what happens when you ask a science communicator for a bucket thatshould yeah that should hold the whole thing I think we're gonna have a littledisplacement I may need to add a little on top I don't want to get any water inthe Schrader's because that water can right then potentially get entrained inthe system so I close these would have a nice gasket on the inside oh nice andtake use this one to fill so we take our nitrogen i nitrogen attached that we'vegot a Schrader's in now and we'll do a pressurized bubble leak test okaywhere oh why see will pressurize it and put it in to see if it's coming outanywhere so we're now at 200 psi of nitrogen may I not yell we do that it'sgot excited you good to get excited she's very important we're gonnadisconnect this line oh so now it's still under pressure so still underpressure we have because of the Schrader exactly and this is why having theSchrader's in number one I know that had a straighter and now because Ipressurized it let me do this and if that's coming out of that right now justcoming out of there yeah hmm interesting I don't think that's a leak in the heatexchanger a leak in the heat exchanger yeah that's a pinhole heat exchangerleak well all of my brains don't sit good do you want to try and braise thatone should try to braise that shut okay that looks gooddamn all right okay let's cross their fingers and hope thatwe do it's these are lost free fittings or Loas fittings amazing I was amazedwhen I found out you could do that by using hydraulic quick connects withpneumatic systems yeah yeah yep all right I just put it up to about 300 psiso okay really will we should see something immediately if I did a goodjob yes I've never done that before firsttime ever that Wow dude that was an awesome effect now I just want to makesure we get all of this underwater let me put this cap on first oh yeah thereyou go sorry thank you nope no worries thankyou perfect and I see no leaks coming from anywhere yeah amazing dudethat was that's you know nuts our day could have gone any which way in themaking or we're done by the end of the day that it's awesome so do we leavethat in there for a while yeah we're good we okay have a lottery system testdone now does leak test done you have a hermetically sealed system as we know ohmy god and the next two steps we'll pull out a vacuum to remove all the nitrogenokay and we will oh and then we fill it withthe thing we fill it with Bertrand we've got that so we'll pull vacuum to removethe night remove the nitrogen we will fill it with a little refrigerant hookup the electronics fill it with more refrigerant walls running and thenyou'll have a perfect system amazing inside my gauge set right now I've got aa very high vacuum that I've pulled over the weekend and we've hooked up a can ofautomotive our 1:34 which is the refrigerant we're gonna use for this andyou have to be certified yes plumb this is X so I have certified a universal EPAHVAC certification under normal circumstances we would use in any realHVAC work a 30 kilogram okay big bar a 15 kilogram tank right a big bottle inthe case of a system like this we're really only gonna put about 30 grams 40grams of refrigerant in okay so it doesn't make sense to have 15 kilogramswhen we only need 30 grams as an alternative this little tank ofrefrigerant here for automotive purposes is 340 grams so we'll end up using 20%of this bottle or instead of like 2% of a really big bottle that's awesomewe've had to make a little juryrigg connector together automotive bottle andthe automotive can tap through to our standard refrigeration fill line and webraised that in the other day the other time so I've purged any air out of myrefrigeration line and ready to fill this so we always fill the suction sidewhich means adding refrigerant to the blue line okay and to do that I'm gonnamake sure I always start off making sure my valves are closed this one I can haveopen because we're gonna add refrigerant here we've zeroed out our scale I wantto know how many grams we put in okay it's helpful to understand how thesystem is behaving and at this point is pretty simple weopen this up we know what's up and we're gonna squeeze the trigger to add morebread so we've now added a startingrefrigeration charge of let's see how many grams we've gots three whole gramsof refrigerant so we've got about three grams in a system the pressure has gonefrom high vacuum up to 55 psi and this is when we can start the compressorsince we no longer have the system under vacuum we have some minimal refrigerantcharge in the system we can spin the compressor and it can do some work oncewe get the compressor moving we'll continue to add refrigerant until we seea couple different values up here on here so I'm gonna grab two other clampsso we can watch the temperatures so this first clamp I'm putting on the suctionside of the compressor okay and what this is going to tell me this is reallyfundamental measurement we're gonna be boiling refrigerant off here and therefrigerants gonna come through this heat exchanger and as it's absorbingheat we can measure the temperature when it gets to here okay we're alsomeasuring the pressure at this point so at a given pressure we're gonna have agiven boiling points of given temperature for water water boils at 100degrees the gas that's the steam that's generated can be hotter than 100 degreesthe water itself right can never be hotter than 100 degrees Celsius 212Fahrenheit at sea level but we can change the pressure like if you go toColorado you're a higher elevation which means you can have a different boilingpoint in different temperature so we can modulate those boiling points oh Ichanging the amount of refrigerant in the system and changing the speed of thecompressor fascinating so look at them that can change overall how fast it cango through cooling cycles and how much it can cool and also how efficient thesystem is I never realized it was an adjustable set of values with it yes Ijust thought you put it under pressure and boiled it off and in thatchange you got cold but that's but your with part of it different pressuresyield right right right oh my god so we can adjust thosepressures and temperatures and we're gonna adjust them to make the systemreally efficient and also give you the right amount of cooling amazing so rightbecause there's an optimal relationship between the values exactly that'sexactly the case so okay gonna go ahead and make surethis is all ready and if you feel this actually no and you probably get alittle cold that should be cold mmm-hmm these cans are not the bestthese fittings leak a little bit so I see I want to make sure that we've keepour pressure up here and now we can basically spend the compressor now okaythis control board is ready to go but I'm gonna take a little shortcut herewhich is I don't know why I write to the compressor we can wire the right rightto the compressor I'm hoping that my software is still running on our littleArduino board but we're gonna plug in 24 volts hook up Larry turn this off roundsno go ahead I don't mind plugging things in whilethey're on it's all low voltage yeah nothing to be afraid of here all right so because that second we'llsee if that turns on and if it doesn't then we should wire directly in whoathere it goes so that was a great check system yeah that it was going through tomake sure it was finding everything it wanted to find exactly and now thecompressors running I'm gonna keep adding refrigerant okay and I'm gonnawatch these temperatures so this is the temperature that we're boiling at rightso I want the warm side of this to be warm enough that we can reject heat andthe cold side cold enough that we can absorb you tonight this is getting warmer excellent yeahit's definitely getting colder right down at the bottom here where the ohyeah boiling is taking place that's gonna be the coldest spot other thing wecan do is if you have a jumper I think we're gonna jump the 5 volts directly tothe speed setting so that I don't have to plug my Arduino in all right sneakthat in here there we go 77 a fan on here we can start to get rid ofsome of that heat okay oh yeah this is getting nice and hot onthe hot side okay so now you need a third um power supply before when we weren't taking heat awaythe cold side was cold but it was not as cold as is now now we're getting rid ofthat heat the cold side is extremely cold to the point where we've got alayer of ice forming on all these – once we hook add them up we will get a loadso we'll start taking Adams heat away into this system and then when we crankit back up to full speed Adam will get cold quickly outlet into the top one because we wantto go okay flow we want to have right coldrefrigerant going up and we want to have the water going down that way you'regonna get the most effective cooling fastest and then it comes out of me into intoyes into there yeah it's pumping out a lot isn't it oh that seems like right weshould let's crank it up we're going it that slow speed here so you crank thatfan and we're gonna go yeah I was thinking it didn't feel like it wasgetting any colder but now it is I mean I'm definitely feeling cooling all overI loved it this 1975 Royal Air Force cool suits still totally functional they're fast we can go before you feelin it like the moment you did that I'm feeling a difference yeah that seems tobe one of the limiting factors and how cold we can get yep yeah I can feel theconspirators we're circulating so we definitely need a more powerful pumpyeah dude check me out I'm getting cold thisis the most elaborate way to get cold in most the United States right now if youjust walk outside there's also helping it sink in howincredible it is that NASA built us all into their space students writesomething fully everything here is in a self-contained spacesuit along withoxygen and other stuff going on and other telemetryoh yeah again I always understood how the system worked but seeing its levelof complexity is kind of amazing in the vacuum of space dealing with temperatureis really tricky because you can't conduct temperature away by by havingair that's cold or hot right right you've got solar radiation that'sbringing a lot of energy onto people and then you're giving away photons out inthe space so there's these trade-offs of of heat flux this that NASA had a systemthat kept kept astronauts cool by actually boiling off a gas and dissipatea liquid in space and basically just vaporizing it and as you do that you canyou can have a lot of phase changes happening here right it's changedabsorbs energy absorbs heat and tah-dah you're managing temperature now I feellike I'm standing outside oh yeah great day I'm starting to get real cold it isactually I think we're hitting some good at some point you can look at thethermal image oh yeah that's awesome yeah you can see the lines on your bodywhere the FLIR is picking up all the cold tubes that's spectacular I thinkthat's what I would call a successful test of the mini refrigerator that Kippdesigned and we built here because it has me freezing and I want to say cut sowe can wrap it I can get on some normal speed clothes so cut really noticeable it's moving I meanit's moving to heat yeah man and if we crank up the the pump yeah you're gonnathat's pretty awesome.

Mobile Suit Gundam I / Kidou Senshi Gundam I (1981) [ENG, RUS subtitles, 1080p]

It has been 50 years since mankindbegan moving its overflowing population.






out into space.

Around the Earth, hundredsof gigantic space colonies now float.






in whose cylindrical walls manhas recreated his old world.

In this new homeland for thehuman race, people are born.












and die.

It is the year 0079of the Universal Century.

The colonies of Side 3, the furthest from the Earth.






have declared themselves thePrincipality of Zeon and have launched.






a war of independence againstthe Earth Federation.

The first month offighting saw each side lose.






half of theirrespective populations.

All of mankind was horrifiedby the atrocities it committed.

The bitter stalemate has draggedon for eight months now.

Slender, you stay here.

Aye, sir.

Looks like the military facilitiesare in the upper-right block, sir.

Everyone must be at work.

I count one car but there areno people to be seen.

Hold it, I see a kiddown there, too.

Amuro! Amuro? He hasn't eaten yet.



Amuro! I thought you'd be up here.

It isn't healthy for you toskip breakfast all the time.

Hello, Amuro.

Hello, Amuro.

You're cheerful as always, Haro.

Thank you, Amuro.

What do you planto wear, Amuro? Amuro! I'll eat as soon as I 'mdone with this computer.

Didn't you hear theevacuation order? Evacuation order? Is thatwhat that siren was all about? Oh, for heaven's sake! Didn't you hearthe army's broadcast? They're putting us inthe shelters because of.






that warship that'sdocking here today.

What for? Amuro, we don't have much time! All right, already.



I'll wait for you outside.

Haro, come.

Gimme a break! Hayato! Hi, Fraw Bow.

Shame on you, not telling Amuro!He lives right next door.

About the evacuation? Of course.

He's been livingall alone in there, after all.

Well, if militaryengineers like his dad.






hadn't come herein the first place.



Are you still upsetabout them kicking us out.






so they could buildthe research center? It's not that.



Hayato! Coming! See you! Amuro! You're hopeless, you know that? Is your dad on the shipthat's coming in today? Probably.

He wentEarthside about a week ago.

I wonder if there'll befighting on this colony, too.

Don't ask me.

Dad never tells me anything! Get the Gundam parts loadedonto the White Base.

– Tell the ground crew to hurry!- Aye, sir! Damn White Base! They'rebringing a Zeon ship here, too! – So, that's it?- Yes, sir.

The Federal Forces havea fine new class of ship.

Once we work out the bugs onthose ships and the Gundam.






we'll have no troublesmashing the Principality of Zeon! Excuse me, Lieutenant Ray.

We're docking with Side 7 now.

Could you please come tothe bridge at once? Ah.

Aye, Ensign.

– You're name's Bright, isn't it?- Yes, sir.

How long have you beenin the military? Six months, sir.

Once we get the Gundam intoproduction, we may be able.






to end this war without kidslike you seeing actual combat.

Is that your son, sir? Yes.

Is it true that boys hisage are fighting as guerrillas? Yes, sir.

I've heard it's true.




At ease, Lieutenant Ray.

So, we weren't able tolose that Zeon ship? Unfortunately, no.

That makes three mobile suits!There are probably more inside.

We have to hit them now! We're just here to observe.

But, if they get those suitsonto that battleship.



! Don't be in such a hurryto grab some glory.

Gene! It worked forLt.

Commander Char! He built his careerby winning actual battles! Dammit, Gene! You're violating directorders! Gene, stop! No one'll care ifI pull this off right.

Better to kill yourenemy quickly, I say! That was close! I think that wasinside the colony! Maybe it was a meteor.

These shocks are beingcaused by.



Explosions! The Zeon!The Zeon are attacking! Amuro! I'm going tolook for my dad! Amuro.



! No! You'll get us all introuble if you go out! My dad works for the military.

This shelter capsuleisn't going to hold out! I'm going to ask ifwe can evacuate to.






the ship thatdocked here today! Kid, wait! Stop! Close your door, please! Zeon mobile suits! Is that a Zeon Zaku? Hey! Civilians are supposedto be in the shelter capsules! I'm looking for myfather, Dr.

Tem Ray! Do you know where he is?! On the ship, I think!Come on, let's get this out! Look out! They're dead.



“Classified materials? ” This is.



A FederalForces mobile suit? Mr.

Denim left me in the constructionarea in case anything went wrong.

I followed his orders and.



And where's Denim? He stayed behind to help Gene.

And the Federal Forces dohave mobile suits there? Yes, sir! Get all the pictures you can.

If it gets too hot, pull out! Yes, sir! What do we do, sir? So, Denim couldn't keepthat rookie under control.



I may have to go there myself.

Take us closer to Side 7! Yes, sir! The basic movements arehandled by the computer.



No wonder Dad was socrazy about this thing! Amuro! Amuro!What are you doing?! Damn you! Amuro.



We can probably use one ofthe inner-lifts for this! – Fraw, get to the spaceport!- Amuro! – Fraw, come on!- Right! Dad! There's lift #3, right? But the refugees are using it.

Dad! The Gundam comes before them! Get it aboard the White Baseand prep it for combat! Yes, sir! Dad! Amuro? Why aren'tyou in a shelter? Do you really thinkthese mobile suits.






are more importantthan people's lives?! Let's go! Dad! Get to the White Base! White Base.



? The warship that docked heretoday.

What's the holdup?! The engine won't turn over! Just get to the White Base! C'mon, let's find a tractor.

Dad! This is.



Amuro! Come on! Are you alright, Amuro?! Fraw Bow! Fraw! Fraw Bow! Fraw Bow!Come on, speak to me! Amuro.



Can you stand? Mother.















Fraw, they'll get you, too.

You have to run, Fraw! No! Get a hold of yourself!You're stronger than this! I want you to run to the spaceport.

You can do it, Fraw Bow! I'll meet you there soon.

Now go! Run, Fraw Bow! Run, Fraw.



That's right.

That's the way.




This thing's on! Just like the manual.

Is this.



? Incredible.

The energy capacityis five times above normal! Let's do it! Here it is.

Can I make it? Left.






Hurry! Get some weapons out here! White Base, can youlaunch a Core-Fighter? Impossible! We'd have toblast the Side's hull open! Do we have all combatpersonnel out there?! Aye, sir! I never expected they'd attackfrom inside the colony.



! Gotta stand up! He's in front of me! Weapons.



? Chief Denim! That enemymobile suit just moved! What?! I thought they were alljust parts being shipped! Wait, it's having troublemoving.

I'll get it.

Here it comes! What the hell's thatmobile suit made of?! My rifle didn't even scratch it! Watch this, you god damned Zaku! Our orders were to just observe!We're pulling out, Gene! What are you saying?! If we don't beat them here, they'll just keep getting.



It's up! Stand up.



Come on! Sir! One of ourmobile suits is moving! Moving? What kind of attack is that?!Who's in the cockpit?! I'm out of ammo! You're going down.



I don'tcare how thick your armor is! Here he comes! I'd swear this suitlooks scared of me! The Federal Forces have amobile suit that powerful?! Incredible.



I won't let you escape! Aren't there anyother weapons?! Weapons.



This? Gene, can you jump back towhere Slender is waiting?! I still have my auxiliarycamera to see with.

I can jump.

You're not getting away! If I destroy that othermobile suit's engine.






it could rip Side 7 apart!What do I do?! You'll pay for killing Gene! What do I do? Maybe justaim for the cockpit.



? If this Zaku blows, it'll takeall of Side 7's air with it! Get those civilians onto the White Base! Aye, sir.

Looks like that airleak has been sealed off.

How's the Gundam transfer going? It's stopped.

It looks like allour regular engineers are dead.

– Then we'll use that thing.

– Sir? Whether that's a realpilot or somebody else.






we need their help! What was.



?! Where's Slender? He's escaped from Side 7and is on course for the ship.

No one Iikes to admit to them.

To those mistakescaused by their youth.

Grab some civilians!Just get me some help here! Someone's shootingfrom outside, too? Where's my Yuuri?! Come back!Get on board the White Base! Yuuri! Yuuri! Hang on tight.

Hurry! Fraw Bow!Get to the White Base.

A mobile suit! Amuro? Amuro, is that you in there? Move it! The air's gonna begone from this section soon! R- Right! Captain! I 'll take over here!Please get back to the ship! You're a pilot trainee.

Do you know how to shoot? I can try.

Go to it.

Captain! – Are you alright?- Yes, sir! I'm fine! You followed my orders, as well as Denim's.

Just relax, Mr.


Thank you, sir! Though I find it hard tobelieve the Feddies.






could build such animpressive mobile suit.

I know, sir, but I saw it myself.


Open a laser com.

channeland contact Admiral Dozle.

You'll be safe in this ship.

Just sit quietly.

You, down there! You can tie bandages, can't you?Help us out up here.


I'll look for yourmothers later on, okay? Okay! – Over there.

– Right.

Excuse me.

Oh, thanks.

Can you help? Get some suture tape onthe wound on that side.


You're sure that Zeonship has ceased fire?! Yes, sir.

All right, get back here! Captain, there you are.

Captain! Everyone who was defending us fromthat Zeon ship has been wiped out.

How are things on your end? Every soldier and engineeron Side 7 has been killed.

All due tothose two Zakus.

I see.



We don't even have ten soldiersin fighting condition.

Get all Gundam-related materialloaded on board at once! Yes, sir.

Fortunately, one pilotgot a Gundam operational.

He's transferring a Guncannonand a Guntank on board now.

Who's the pilot? I haven't found that out yet.

Once he's finished, get the White Baseout of Side 7 at once.

Yes, sir.

But who willpilot the White Base, sir? The computer cantake us out of port.




Excuse me.

I'm just licensed for cruiser-class space gliders, but.



Could I be ofany help to you? Who are you? Mirai Yashima, sir.

Really?!As in the Yashima family? I hoped to be toasting.






the successful completionof your mission last night.

But, because youwasted so much time.






my dinner plans were ruined! We've discovered the FederalForces' V Project, Admiral Dozle.

What? The V Project? Y es, sir.

Mobile suit production.

We also picked up a new classof warship at the same time.

Char, the Red Comet, strikesagain.

So, what else? Since we were headed back to port, we've exhausted our missiles.

You need to be resupplied?You've got it! Thank you.

One more thing.

I need three more Zakus.

Are you telling me youlost three Zakus?! Y es, sir! Two of them toa single Feddie mobile suit.

All right, you'll get your Zakus.

Just get me any data onthe V Project that you can.

If possible, capture thatmobile suit as well.

I 'll try, sir! Lieutenant! Get methree shock troops! What? Aren't we going towait for the supply ship? In war, always thinktwo or three moves ahead.

Slender managedto get out of there.

Meaning we can do justthe opposite, can't we? Who did you say was in it? He's named “Amuro, ” sir.

I don't know him.

He could be a test pilothere on Side 7.

Contact the Gundam onthe starboard panel.

Yes, sir.

Have the Gundam coverWhite Base when it leaves port.

Where's the channel control? On the right-hand console.

How does it look, Miss Mirai? Fine, sir.

The engines need somemore time to reach critical level.

Captain! There's a kidoperating the Gundam! What?! See for yourself, sir.

This boy is in the Gundam.

He's no pilot.

Him?! You know him? Not personally, but he'sfamous on Side 7.






for being really into machines.

That boy took down two Zeon Zakus? It was the Gundam thatbeat them, not me.

What are you doing in there?! That voice.



You're theone who ordered me before.






to get the Gundam-relatedequipment on board here! I'll get him outof there, sir.

If only there were anypilots still alive.

– You take the residential block.

– Okay, gotcha.

C'mon, Chief, hang on! What're you.


? Captain's orders.

We're tolook for any stragglers.

Are there anyother people left? I dunno.

I was dodging the blastcraters and barely made it here.

You coming? Why, you.



! You call yourself a man?!Coward! What's your problem?! I'd be happy to leave a guylike you alone here on Side 7! Who died and made you queen? Umm.



Your name's Sayla, right? Why, you.



Don't talk tome like some street punk! – Fraw Bow!- Right! Hey! Gimme a hand here.




Activate engines.

Thrust: 3% Mega-particle cannons, stand by.

Target: Side 7's space gate.

Avoid any direct hitson the docking bay.

Not bad, Lieutenant.

Slender! Sir! We can get in throughthis maintenance airlock.

All right! Go! Looks like they're attacking again.

What do we do about Amuro, Captain? Operator, what's attacking us? Sir! One Musai-class behind us, 40 degrees to port and closing.

Destroy any Gundam parts we can't use! – Issue a beam rifle to the Gundam!- Sir? He's a little young tobe sent into battle.

But there's precedent forsoldiers as young as 1 5 or 1 6.

Aye, Captain.

Amuro, do you read me? Destroy all the Gundamparts left in Side 7! Why? There're stillthree suits left in there.

Do you want the Zeonto get our secrets?! That's strange.

The Musai's falling back.

Falling back.



?Do you know what to do? If we use that “super napalm “stuff, it should work.

Captain? Amuro's made the right choice.

Let him do it.

Is anyone left here? I'm going over to Amuro's house.

Be home in time for dinner.

If anyone's left, please answer.

No survivors.



Freeze! Drop it.

You're brave, all right.

You don't look likea soldier or a guerrilla.

One move and I'll shoot! She looks like.



! Take off the helmet!Then turn around! But, if she's Artesia.



That's a Zeon! Big brother.



? I'm going to use the super napalm! Get into my hand! I 'm going to destroythe mobile suit parts here.

Amuro! You're sure itwas a Zeon soldier? Y es, sir.

Are you okay? Y es.


Bright! A Zeon soldier'sgotten into the port! What?! Close all hatches on the White Base! Issue a gun to anyonewho can hold one.



! It doesn't matter who! Shoot that Zeon soldier comingin from the bow! Move it! There it is.

Get ready to leave port! Damn! Commander! They're coming out! Shoot them! Shoot them! Shoot them! They're coming out! Equip Slender's andmy Zakus to the maximum.






and send them out on a laser line! This is Musai.


Course plotted.

Open the hatch! Prepare to launch Zakus!Course RD-23.

Gate sensor: 360 degrees, all roger.

Your shoulders are too tense.


Let the computer handle this.

Aye, sir.

– Get me Amuro in the Gundam.

– Yes, sir? Don't get too farout from the White Base! Stay within ten kilometers, to the right of the ship.


Reconfirm that each sectionis airtight.

Can you do that? Yes, sir.

Operator, we have mostlyamateurs crewing the ship.

I want them broughtup to speed ASAP! – We'll do what we can.

– Go to it.

Internal missile stores are shown by.



I know.

This display, right? You catch on quick.

All blocks!Stand by for a counterattack! Now exiting docking bay.

Begin Minovsky particle broadcast!Full combat density! Bright, I'm ready tolaunch in a Core-Fighter! Ryu? Are you sure? I'm a pilot trainee, remember? Better than these amateurs, but.



Any experience? Two simulated flights.

About as experienced as Amuro.



High-intensity heatsources approaching! Heavy missiles! 1 2 degreesto starboard, minus 8 degrees! – Mirai!- Aye, sir! It's too late! I'm tracking them!Let me have a shot at them! Go for it! I'm launching now! These I can handle.

Come on! Tracking two more objects closing in! What?! They look like mobile suits.

Zakus? But no Zaku can go this fast! One of them is closing atthree-times normal speed! It's Char! The Red Comet.



! What was that, Captain? Char, “the Red Comet”! Char took out five of our shipssingle-handed at the Battle of Loum! Get us out of here! Now, let's see how good thatFeddie mobile suit really is.

I'll take him! Shooting a Zakuisn't like shooting people! I can do it! Amuro, no! You can't handle him.



I can do it! You won't get past me! Gotcha! Impossible! It was a direct hit! This is.






Slender, are you here yet?Get behind that enemy mobile suit! But, Commander! What's it firing?!I've never seen a gun like that! It doesn't matter, as long as itdoesn't hit you.

Now cover me! Don't waste the energy charge! You don't have to tell me that! He's behind you! Pull up! A Core-Fighter? Why, you.



Slender! One shot! One shot and it blew?! I don't believe it! I s that mobile suit carrying awarship-class beam rifle?! One shot.



The Zaku.



How dare you! The beam rifle charge! I drained it.

Core-Fighter, in landing bay.

Gundam, set course for landing.

Gundam has landed.

Once they're secured in the bayhave Ryu and Amuro report to the bridge.

Put the White Base on course for Luna II.

All hands remain at your stations, but take turns getting some rest.

They're here.

Bright, what's the enemy doing? They're not moving, butI think they'll follow us.

Char's like that.

Amuro! You, huh? You're depending too muchon the Gundam's abilities.

You'll have to be moreeffective in battle.

What? Grow up! As long as you controlthe Gundam, you're a pilot! You have a duty to protect this ship! What did you say? You may not like it, but that's the way things are.

If you can't do it, you cango back to Side 7 right now! Bright! I may not be able to do it.






but I have to do it.

I think that you're.



! Feel free to hate me.

Now go help withthe Gundam's maintenance.

Use whoever you need.

You're responsible for it now.

Luna II.

An asteroidbrought here to provide.






building materialsfor the space colonies.

It is now the front linebase of the Federal Forces.

Canned food for you! How many are in here? Seven.

Excuse me, but I askedfor some milk earlier.

Here it is! How long until we get to Luna II? They say it'll be another hour.

Pardon me.

When do the food rations come? They're right down the hall.

Sayla! Where did you livebefore coming to Side 7? Am I required to answer? No, I was just.




It's my first time.

Being out in space, I mean.

One of the elite, I see.

Are you being sarcastic? Weakness isn't allowedhere, Ensign Bright.

Need a break? I just haveto watch the gauges, right? Thanks.

Watch it untilwe're ready to dock.

He won't Ieave us alone.

He won't try anything at Luna II.

Why not? It's a question of firepower.

Again! Amuro, I brought you somefood and a change of clothes.

If you don't change, you'll start to smell! You've skipped two meals already.

You have to eat something! I'm not hungry! I thought you didn't likeBright making you do this.

That's beside the point.

I'm doingthis because I don't want to die! Are you? Aren't l? Why do they keep such an old shipin service? Lieutenant Dren! Sir! Open a video link with them.

So, the Red Comet needssome supplies, eh? Get caught with your pants down? I had my first real battlewith an enemy mobile suit.

I know how you feel.

Looks like the sector's filling upwith Minovsky particles.

Hurry! Open the hatches! Dock withthe conveyor pipes immediately! Madagascar, locked onto beacon.

Docking speed: maximum, minus two.

You're in the pipe.

Looking good.

You 're on course.

Madagascar, entering port.

Docking crews and ammo loaders, report for duty! Recreation services, where are you?Are you ready to receive our troops? Pier #2, ready! Load secondary battlesupplies on board.

Roger! I ' m Wakkein, the commander of Luna II.




The repairs tothe White Base and the children.



! Y es, sir.

We'll get theship directly to Jaburo.

Right, get going.

Commander Wakkein, can't youat least take the refugees? We can't go to Jaburo like this! We barely have anyexperienced crewmen.

You've already hadsome combat experience.




! I'm sorry, folks.

This is a new class of ship.

It has to get toFederation HQ at Jaburo.

They'll decide where tosend you once you're there.

What, we're going to Earth? We want to go back to Side 7! We were going to live there! These orders come from Jaburo!This ship is to leave at once.

Sir, do you thinkthey'll make it? How should I know? All I could do was give them oneSalamis-class cruiser as an escort.

And wish them luck.

Jaburo has no idea whatit's like at the front.

Sir! This war with the Zeonis getting desperate.

To be using totalamateurs like them.



Terrible times we live in, don't you think? Where's the #27 computerfor this spare Core-Fighter? How should I know?Check over there.

That Core-Fighter'sthe mobile suit's cockpit? The Gundam, Guncannon, and Guntank all use them.

All right! All right! Whoa, Hayato.

Working hard, huh? The enemy's right in front of us.

Can you learn it all that fast? Lay off me! Kai, are you finished with themaintenance on the Guncannon? All set.

Then you're to stand byat alert level 1.

Yes, ma'am! 25 minutes to atmospheric entry.

Think you can handle it, Mirai? I performed one entry before, in a space glider.






but I could patch into theground control com.

net then.

The basic concept is the same.

Just follow the Salamis' lead.

I'm worried, though.

Char won't let us go so easily.

– Just concentrate on the entry.

– Aye, sir.

Hey, kid! Do you read me? Aye, Lieutenant Reed.

You all set for entry? We'll bein the Salamis ' re-entry capsule.

We'll be going faster, so don't fall behind.

Aye, sir.

Roger that.

Mirai, cut in the auto-navsystems and prepare for entry.

Aye, sir.

Fortunately, we were ableto get three new Zakus.

The enemy will enter theatmosphere in 20 minutes.

I don't think any battle has beenlaunched with this sort of timing.

If the Earth's gravity pulls youin and you start re-entering.






you and your Zakuwill burn up in an instant.

But, as they'll beconcentrating on entry.






it's a perfect chance toattack them with our Zakus! The primary target is the Trojan Horse.

Secondary is the enemy mobile suit.

I expect you all to do well.

The ship will be entering theatmosphere in 15 minutes.

All hands, stand byat alert level 2.

Ryu, isn't there a smaller one? We've got some kids' sizes.

Check over there.

Here, the neck fastenerhas a double seal.

Kids' sizes? Cool.

Perfect fit.

When did I become a part of this war? What? Nothing.

I'll stand by in the Gundam.

– Stand by with the missiles.

– Aye, sir.

Think Char will follow us? Doubt it.

Salamis capsule away.

White Base now following.

To all hands on the White Base.

The ship will be entering theatmosphere in three minutes.

If you are standing, please find a seat.

Even if the ship starts shaking, please remain calm.

Combat and maintenance personnel, stand by at your stations.

We may have to launch the Gundam.

Maintenance teams, be prepared.

Bandits! Putting it on screen.

Maximum magnification.

34 seconds to interception! Gundam! Launch and slow down thoseZakus! Can you do it, Amuro? How should I know? After you launch, get back tothe White Base in four minutes.

Otherwise you'll burn upin the atmosphere.


There are four Zakus approachingfrom aft, R3 degrees.

Four?! That can't be right! A fact is a fact.

Char gets resupplied, too.

Wish I could be as calm as you.

Ryu and Kai will be covering you.

Just watch your altitude.

You think I can watchthat while I 'm fighting?! I know you can.

You don't have to flatter me.

Step onto the catapult! Clear to launch! Moving out! Don't screw this up, Amuro.



They've launched a mobile suitas well.

Dren, cover us! We'll split intotwo groups and attack.

Roger! Now launching re-entry capsule! Right! Launch! Musai! Launch missiles! Amuro, don't concentrate on Char! Those Zakus are going afterthe Salamis ' capsule! The capsule?! I 'm tired of runningfrom Char, but.



! Idiot! No, you don't! Gotcha! This sight's driftingout of calibration! He's got a vulcan cannon?! Commander! I can't hit him!Are the vulcan barrels misaligned?! We're hit! The upper-hull! Bright! If we re-enter like this, we'll burn up from the inside! Roger! The White Base will pick you up.

Thanks! Sayla! Tell Amuro tolure those two Zakus away! I mpossible! He's tiedup fighting Char! A mobile suit's abilities don'tdecide a battle's outcome.

I'll teach you that! Damn you, Char! Got him! Damn! My bazooka ammo.



! Behind me! Too slow! Salamis capsule, now deploying laser lock! What about those Zakus? Laser lock, engage! C'mon! Die already! Get in closer to them! Yes, sir.

But thattriple-A's pretty thick! You call that thick?! Watch yourenemy and attack from below! We're hit, starboard side! Intensify starboard turret fire! Releasing emergency wall filmsealant in the damaged areas! Fraw, can I fight, too? It's a war out there! I'm not scared! Are, too! I am not! Where are the machine gun turrets? In number 35, I think.

The starboard one aims forward.

I 'll give it a try.

Amuro, we've got Zakus hittingus from below.

Take care of them! – How's it looking?- Not particularly good.

Damn! Too easy! Stop! Damn it!Is that Feddie suit a monster?! Amuro! Gundam! Do you read?!You're over time! Amuro, return to the White Base!You're over time! Prepare for atmospheric entry!Secure all guns! Amuro, come in through the rear hatch!It's too dangerous now! Roger! Commander Char!Please get into the capsule! Crown, forget him! Even thatenemy suit can't take this heat! Leave him alone andget into the capsule! Tell Amuro he'll burn upin the atmosphere, too! Amuro, get back here!Forget the Zaku! Ensign Bright! My orders are to get the White Baseand the Gundam to Jaburo safely! Get the Gundam back in here!He's going to burn up! Tell Amuro! Why did you use that amateur?! But, if I hadn't sent the Gundam out, they'd have shot the White Base down! Lieutenant Reed, please sit down.

It's dangerous.

Bring outer hull coolingsystem up three points.

I'll have you court-martialed!Got that?! Where's Amuro?Hasn't Amuro come back yet? I didn't expect my rate ofdescent to be this fast! What about Crown? Forget it.

We can't recover him now.

Commander! Commander Char! Help me! I can't slow down!Commander Char, help me, please! Crown.



A Zaku just can'tsurvive atmospheric entry.

I'm sorry, Crown, butyour death won't be in vain.

Got it! There is a re-entry system!But do I have time? Cooling shift and heatproof field!Activating all systems.

We can't contact the Gundamdue to re-entry blackout.

Amuro! Amuro! Come in! Amuro! What's wrong?! He'll be out of contactfor a few minutes.

That mobile suit's still there.

It's not burning up.

What's going on? They havea suit that can handle re-entry? Altitude 32.

































Is it going to hold out? When we get radio com.

back, contact Garma on the continent.

Now I see, Commander Char.

Even if we didn't defeat thembefore atmospheric entry.






our backup plan wasto change their entry angle.






and bring them downin territory we control.

War is unforgiving.

You always have to think ahead.

I have Captain Garma, sir.


What can I do for you, Red Comet? I may have to resign thatnickname, Capt.

Garma Zabi.

You sound unusually humble.

You've heard about the enemy'sV Project, haven 't you? I've seen it firsthand.

What? It's taken out sixof my Zakus so far.

How awful.

Is it really that good? I 've led him your way.

You may have the honor of the kill.

I'm coming in right behind it.

Very well.

I accept your gracious offer.

I 'll attack it with our Gawassault carriers.

Scramble! Restoring video.

It's the Gundam! The Gundam!It's all right! Amuro! Look, Pelo.

That's the Earth.

That's all land down there? And is that the sea?That's called the sea, right? Oh, yes.

You've never seen theEarth before, have you, Pelo? This is a real planet.

Made of real land and water.

Amuro, good work.




Amuro! We madea pie to celebrate! We have champagne, too, Amuro.

Let's have a toast with our pie! Cheers, Amuro! Cheers, Amuro! Just leave me alone.



What's your problem, Amuro?! This was our projected entry angle.

This is our current course.

There's no waywe can get to Jaburo! I agree.

We're deep in Zeon territory.

You've got to be kidding.



! Careful!Let me take care of that! Char's a brilliant strategist.

He really took us for a ride.

We have to break out of here!Someway, somehow! – Enemy planes!- What?! Char may have been right.

It's totally differentfrom any other Feddie warship.

The Musai capsule! Bring it aboard! All right!Got her, five by five! Captain Garma, the Musaicapsule is on board.

Hello there, Char.

This isn't like you.

You had a hard time withjust one enemy ship, eh? Please don't mention that, Garma.

Or should I call you Captain Garma, commander of the Earth Occupation Forces? Call me Garma, like you did at the Academy.

That's the Trojan Horse.

The ship that eventhe Red Comet couldn't stop.

Are you saying you wouldn'thave come out here otherwise? Oh, no.

I'm happy to come justto pick up an old friend, Char.

Don't forget, the Trojan Horseperformed re-entry on its own.

Ah, yes.

We're taking that into accountas we calculate its combat potential.

They've had you on constant dutysince the guerrilla mop-up, right? Why don't you rest? I think I'll accept your offer.

I guarantee that victory in thisoperation will mean a Zeon Cross.

Thank you.

You've allowedme to prove myself.

Did you come to help me raisemy stock in my sister's eyes? Don't laugh.

The men are watching.

– Amuro, hurry!- Amuro, hurry! Amuro! Amuro! What's wrong? Nothing.

Do you have a fever? No! They said they wantedyou on combat stand-by.

I haven't been able tosleep since we left Side 7.

I try to get to sleep, but I can't! Want me to ask Saylato check you out? She's a med student, after all.

Just shut up! Stop it, Amuro! This isn't like you! And fighting in a mobile suit is?! This war's killedpractically every adult! Old people and kids youngerthan you have to fight! It's the same for the EarthFederation and the Zeon, right?! And cut that out, too! The Federal Forces are justusing us as a decoy.

A decoy? They're working on evennewer weapons than these.

They're using us to keepthe enemy occupied.






so they can have timeto finish them.

We're decoys.

– From Jaburo?- It's come in? This is the White Base.

Defense force M-4.

Decryption circuit: Alpha gain! Alpha gain, roger.

“The White Base is to breakthrough the enemy line.






and escape out to sea.

“That's all it says.

They're not coming to help us?! Hey! Can't we send amessage back through M-4? Impossible! Sending evenan encrypted signal.






this deep in Zeonterritory is dangerous! What are those generals thinking?! They don't knowwhat our situation is! Garma.



You don't have to go.

I told you, I have toprove myself to my sister.

Someone like you who hasno family wouldn't understand.

Guevil squadron, move out! Garma squadron, launch! We're gonna crash! You can't expect these amateursto fly on a deck like this! Take us up to 100 meters! We'll reveal ourselvesto that Gaw! I can't let the White Base getdestroyed by hitting a mountain! Don't blame meif we're spotted! Ryu! Are Hayatoand Kai all set? Hayato's going to bethe gunner in the Guntank.

And Kai? He's got the Guncannon.

Let's seehow well he does.

You okay, Kai? Does it matter if I am or not? Go to it.

We need all thesupport we can get.

I know! That's why I 'msending those amateurs to do this! Look, Bright, I'm only goingto shoot from under the White Base! Okay? That's all I'm doing!We don't get pensions for dying! I'll make sure you do.

Do you agree with the plan? Do you thinkwe'll break through? How should I know? What is it, Fraw Bow? It's no use.

Amuro sayshe doesn't want to fight.

What?! Bright.



Amuro! Launch at once! Can you guarantee I'll sleepwell once the battle's over?! Guarantee? Amuro.



I just can't do it anymore.

If you hadn't fought before, I'd be dead by now.

I know.



So would l.

But I can't standbeing so scared anymore! Damned Trojan Horse! Dopps coming around behind us! They're trying tocut off our escape route! Concentrate fireon the port-side engine! All right! All right! Hold it!Guntank's launching out! All clear, Hayato? I've got it.

Leave it to me.

Guntank, once launched, cover the forward, port-side wing.

Ahead, slow! Jeez, is this all the firepowerwe've got?! Huh, Bright? The Gundam will be launching soon.

Have confidencein our firepower, okay? Sure thing, Sayla.

You reallyknow the right things to say.

Locking the White Base at analtitude of 1 05 meters.

Opening the hatch on launch deck #2.

Ryu, you're clear to launch.

Verify balance and drop! Here we go, Hayato! Take the cannon's safetyoff once we clear the ship! Roger! I'll show youI can do as well as Amuro! What's that? Some kinda tank? A mutant mobile suit design.

It's just a ground weapon.

Guevil squadron, attackthat enemy mobile suit! Hayato! Bandits to the left! Damn, that thing packs a punch! Guncannon, launching! We've got waves oneand two still coming in! Kai, we're counting on you! I 'll give it a try, Sayla.

Alright, I'm down! They're shooting at me! Jeez.



I can do it! I can do it! Two mobile suits have come out!Deploy Magella-Attacks at once! Two mobile suits? Is oneof them the white one, Garma? Negative.

Two ground assault models.

The white one hasn't come out.

Are these mutantsreally worth the Zeon Cross? He's going to need help.

We can't let it escapenow that we have it this low! Amuro! Why aren't youdoing your duty?! Why do you fight, Bright? This is no time to bediscussing philosophy! Now get up! Please, just stop it.

If you want the Gundam.






in action so badly, why don't you pilot it? What?! I would if I could!That goes without saying! I didn't do it before justbecause I was able to.

You hit me.



Ensign Bright! And what's wrongwith me hitting you?! Maybe giving you something to complainabout will make you feel better! Do you reallythink I'm that petty?! That's twice!Even my dad never hit me! Then he was too easy on you! You can't be a real manwithout taking a few lumps! I won't do it! Nobody's going to makeme pilot the Gundam ever again! Amuro, would you stop it?! Get a hold of yourself!Stop whining, Amuro! I'm going to the bridge! Amuro, if you stay like this, you're nothing but a coward! I thought your natural talentwould let you beat Char! Too bad I was wrong! Char? Bright! Bright! Amuro, the Gundam has anoperator's manual, right? I'll pilot the Gundam.

I hate people who can't takecredit for what they've done! If you can't admit that you'rethe only one who's.






protected the White Base uptill now, then you're not a man! I.



Fraw Bow.



You can't pilot the Gundam.




I may not like it, but I am a man.

Amuro, are you going? Amuro! Damn you, Char! My ammo! There's more of them?! Aye, sir! They've called inground units as well! Hitting us fromabove and below? Damn it! Pull back! Retreat!No, shift position! Idiots! What are you aiming at?! Forward batteries, concentrate fireon the Magella-Attacks! You aren't retreating?! You want us to break outof here, don't you? All right! Ryu, these guys are justattacking us harder! Where's Amuro and the Gundam?! White Base, do you read?Please, send out the Gundam! Don't panic.

You can do it.


Good luck.

Hold down the fort! Ryu, don 't get out so far! They're pulling us in!Can't break free! Course clear.

Launch at once!And be careful, Amuro.


Which course is clear? Like theenemy isn't everywhere out there?! Moving out! I 'm falling! Ryu, pull back!Let the Gundam handle them! Go for it! Looks like they'retrying to pick off Kai.

Amuro! Why, you.



! More of them?! All units! The white one's out!There are three total! The Trojan Horse hasthree mobile suits! Bring it down andwe'll trap them all here! The white one's come out?!Let's go! Launch the Komusai!I want to help the Captain! Sir! Don't underestimate me!I'll show you.






the Gundam isn't just somehand-to-hand combat suit! That mobile suit's flying! Gotcha! One! Amuro!The Gundam's fighting in midair! What?! It's incredible! Sayla, open a radio link!Orders for the Guncannon and Guntank! Have them support the Gundam soit isn't picked off when it lands! Roger.

Hayato!Let's help Amuro in the Gundam! Roger! We've gotta keep theseDopps from getting too low! I just have to keepthe Dopps away, right?! Eight.









Those damned Feddies builta hell of a mobile suit! Three! Bright!Look how Amuro's fighting! Yeah, that's onegood thing about him.

He may not like it, but hehasn't forgotten how to fight.




That's just like Amuro! Six, going for seven! Seven! The squadron leader? You monster! Die! Die! What.



? Gaw! Separate the mobile suitsfrom the Trojan Horse! If we can lure them insidethe Gaw's firing range.






we can blow them apart! Komusai closing on the Gundam! What?! Isn't the Red Comet'sZaku on that one?! And the Gundamdropped its beam rifle! Send out the spare! Gundam! Amuro! Do you read? We're launching arifle to you! Catch it! It should be recharged! Huh? What? We're launching you a rifle!The Red Comet's coming! A Zaku descending! It's Char! What?! Go! Char's launched in a Zaku?! There it is! Grab it, Gundam! The power is failing! Amuro, pull back! The White Base will launchmissiles to cover you! Pull back, Amuro! Gundam! No.



The Dopps and Magella-Attacks are falling back! Don't get hit! Roger.

Damned Trojan Horse! Char, do you read me? Y es, Garma.

I 'm back on the Gaw.

You 'd better pull back as well.

We need to rethinkour strategy against them.

It looks that way.

Come back.

We'll plan this together.


You, in the mobile suit!Do you read me? Maintain that altitudeand return to the White Base! Don't chase the enemy too far! Who is she? She seemsto know all about us.

I'll be taking 35 people withme from Lieutenant Reed's.






Salamis crew andthe wounded refugees.

As for the White Baseand its mobile suits.






I've no further ordersand am to leave them here.

General Revil has also ordered meto bring back copies of your battle reports.






uptill now.

But Lieutenant Matilda, I don't understand.

Why are we beingleft in this situation? Well.



General Revil thinks that.






you've been fighting aboutas well as regular troops.

The Federation Forces arein bad shape right now.

I'm only here onGeneral Revil's orders.

Jaburo isn't involved.

But when will we be resupplied next? I don't know.

If you escape to the west, we may be able toget you supplies.


Just remember there's someone in theForces who's looking out for you.

Lieutenant Matilda.



If you hadn't fought so well, we might have been killed, too.

Thank you.

You may besome kind of esper.

Oh, no.



Hang in there.

Yes, ma'am.


Is that you, Garma? I wanted to thank youfor saving my life.

How formal.

So, what dowe do about the Trojan Horse? I've a plan underway.

Nothing would make me happierthan to help you out.


You're worth ahundred regular troops.

With your help, I'll provemy worth to my sister Kycilia.

Perhaps, but you shouldn'tbe so concerned about her.


Yes? I'll see you tonight.

So, parties are partof our occupation policy? And if your father, Sovereign Degwin, ever comes to Earth.






it would be our pleasure toserve him in any way we can.

Pardon me.

I'll catchup with you again later.

Oh, Garma always looks so gallant.

– He's wonderful.

– I think I'm going to faint! I'm drowning in suck-ups! They'd be terrified if they knew aboutthe Trojan Horse and its mobile suits.

The problem is that the areawe have to cover is too large.






to form a task forceto go after them.

Garma, who's thatbig-wig over there? Oh, no, I'm sure thereare other ways to do it.

Eschönbach, the former mayor.

He hates Zeon, but stayedto help the people here.

Looks Iike a stubborn man.

Ladies and gentlemen, Miss lcelina Eschönbach.

If you'll excuse me.

So, he said he won'tlet his daughter marry.






the son of the Zeon leader, eh? Yes.

I figured that'swhat your father would say.

I don't care aboutZeon or the Federation.

To me, you're simply Garma.

I love you.




Even if it means betraying my father, I want to be with you always.

Even I cannot opposemy father or all of Zeon.

Don't worry.

I have a chanceto get the Feddies' secrets now.

Once I've done that, father will have to listen to me.




And if he doesn't, I'll give up being a Zeon.




Captain! What is it?! – Oh, am l.



?- Yes, you are! What is it?! Sir! The Trojan Horse hasbeen detected at point S3! What?! If it breaks throughthe final defense line.






we'll lose it in Feddie airspace! Just as I planned.

We have a defense line there, too! I'll head there in mypersonal mobile air unit! Inform Commander Char!We're moving out! Sir! Garma! Once we've stolenthe Feddies' new weapons.






I'll take them back to Zeonwith you at my side.




Looks like the Zeondon't want us leaving the city.

Yes, but if we don't.



Bright! Let me go out aheadand lead them away.

No, it won't do any good.

It's too late.

We've picked up somethingon the sound detectors! Enemy planes, approaching from the north! Now we have no choice!I'll decoy them.

Then the White Basecan escape out to sea.

No, even a decoy operation orescaping to the sea would.



A flare! Ahead of us!I thought I saw a sports dome! Uh, yeah, there is! All right, it should fit.

We'll hide the White Base in there! Are you sure about this? Amuro, stand by in the Gundam, Kai in the Guncannon.






and Ryu and Hayato in the Guntank.

And remember, we're stillcarrying civilians on board! Funny, I thoughtI was still one of them.

All hands willstand by at alert level 1.

And, until I say otherwise, no one is to make a sound! Please, stay in your rooms! Get her ready! Come about 1 80 degrees.

Aye, sir.

Coming about 1 80 degrees.

Turn that light out!It's just making it worse! Where's his mother? There we go.

Don't cry.

My baby! I'm sorry! I justleft for a moment! Oh, honey, forgive me.

Patrol Luggun! Haven't youfound the Trojan Horse yet?! They're still in the city.

Look harder! A little carpet bombing shoulddrive the rats from their hole.

All units! Prep rollershifts and commence bombing! – Fraw!- It's okay.

It's okay.

We'll be lucky if we're not hit! – Let me go!- Miss, wait! None of you understand! Miss, if you gonow you'll only die! Miss, no! Your fatheris calling for you! How dare you do this to me! Miss, please! I won't! There's someplaceI have to go! Let me go! My father will never understand! That you want to marrythe son of the Zeon leader? You have no right todeny me my freedom! I have a right to decidehow to live my life! No, you don't! Don't let her havethe keys to the jet! Yes, sir.




Well?! Has the Trojan Horseshown itself yet?! No, sir.

Not yet.

Damn it, where are they?!Why won't they come out?! They're starting toget the hang of combat.

Looks like I'll have togo down there and find them.

No, wait.

That's myjob as your subordinate.

You'll do it? Of course.

You're my commander.

For now, but you serve directlyunder my brother, Dozle.

It should be me.

You're being hastier than usual.

You shouldn't let love for a womanallow you to get sloppy.

Calm down.

Go to it.

Am I getting sloppy becauseof lcelina? I'm in control! Zaku AMBAC system set for drop.

Standing by.


Inform me as soon as you'vefound the Trojan Horse or any mobile suits.

I'll finish them off with the Gaw.

Thanks for coming to see me off.

I'll do what you want this time.

Good luck, Garma.

Good luck, Char.

May the glory of victory be yours.

Bright, three Zakus are comingdown and are headed this way.


Amuro, do you hear me? Lure those Zakus outin front of the White Base.


Moving out! I hate to trick my own men, but.



The Trojan Horse must havesent out its mobile suits already.

They found me! Where are they? They're close.



It's Char! I'd better notget hit by that thing! Damned mobile suit!He's gotten better! Not bad, mobile suit.

Trying to lead us away.

Which means the Trojan Horsemust be behind us.

I see.



A good plan! I've been waiting, Char.

The mobile suit's retreating!The Horse must be up ahead! Can you follow it? We will.

Open beam cannons!All units, stand by to attack! Bright, those enemy planesare moving off! Right! Mirai, take your position and.






prepare to attack!- Aye, sir.

Guntank, Guncannon, and White Base batteries! Target the enemy craft andprepare to fire in ten seconds! Ten.










FlRE! What's happening?! We're being fired at from behind! From behind?! It's the Trojan Horse!The Trojan Horse is behind us! Dammit.



Higher!Take us higher! We can't! Then bring us about 180 degrees! I'll ram the Gawinto the Trojan Horse! Garma, if you can hear me, blame thison the misfortune of your birth! What?! Misfortune? Yes.


Char, what are you.



?! You were a good friend, but your father's to blame! Char.



You set me up! Damn it.



I am a man of the Zabi family!I will not die in vain! One enemy unit hasset course for our ship! What?! Jesus, he'son a kamikaze run! – Mirai, higher!- Aye, sir! Take us higher! All hands, get down! GLORY TO THEPRINCIPALITY OF ZEON!!! We made it.



Completely destroyed.

Good God.



No, I appreciate you telling me.

Yes, I see.

Thank you.

I'll tell my daughter.

Icelina! Yes, Father.




Garma hasbeen killed in action.







Garma! News of the death of Garma, the youngest son of its leader.






Sovereign Degwin Sodo Zabi, soon reached the Principality of Zeon.

It's said that Sovereign Degwinreceived the news without a word.

His grief only revealed when helet his cane slip from his grasp.

He then ordered his eldest son, Gihren, to gather the family together.

Just as it was six months ago.

No improvements at all! We can't letGarma's death be in vain.

It would be a bloton the name of Zabi! We won't let it be saidthat he died pointlessly! Gihren, I only wantGarma's death to be.



Sorry we're late, Father! You both came sooner than expected.

Father, I'm sorry about this.

You must be.



Too bad Garma had to die at thehands of a Federation mobile suit.

Gihren, I still don't believe it! I half expect him to comewalking in here right now! Wars aren't won by fixatingon the past, Dozle.

I know, but.



I was looking forward to the daywhen he'd be an admiral .



who could order me around.

I feel as Dozle does.

So please, Gihren.






won't you pray for Garma'ssoul to rest in peace? Know where Amuro is? He said he was goingto visit his mother.

Oh, was he in that Core-Fighterthat left before? He said his home'sabout 30 km east of here.

Huh! So, that rat'sone of the elite, too.

Not everyone who liveson Earth is one of the elite.

He and his fatherwere living out in space.






and he hasn't seen hismother on Earth in a long time.

Anybody who has a home on Earthis elite in my book.

Looks like there've beena lot of air raids around here.

Are we safe? I don't know.

I hear there'sguerrilla activity around here.

Bring on the booze! Who are you? This is my house! What?! Leave him alone! But this little punk is.



! Damn, it's empty.

Sorry we're here without permission, but nobody was here when we came.

Nobody?! Nope.

It was abandoned.

Abandoned?! Mom! Mom! ” Mom! Mom! “Look, he doesn't believe me! Probably died tryingto get away from here.

– It was a helluva air raid.

– Yeah, sure was! You'll be lucky if you find her body.

If you don't want to beapart from Amuro, then come, too.

But, going into space.



Come see the Sides they're building.

They're incredible! I want to show them to Amuro.

I know, but.



But, I.



Forgive me, Amuro.

I'll justnever be able to live in space.

Please, pay me what you owe! Pick it up! Ma'am, don't do it!Don't pick it up! Make those soldiers hand it to you! Who the hell are you?! That boy.



! – Say that again, punk!- You've got some nerve! I said pick it up yourself! Why, you.



! Pickitup! Pick it up! Pick it up! You little bastard! What's a snot-nosed kidlike you know about us?! If we weren't in this town, the Zeeks would've taken it long ago! Who do you think you are?! Of course! That's Amuro, my daughter's friend! Stop it! He's just a boy! Oh, you want some, now?! Here's your money back!Now, please, just go! It was a terribleair raid, Amuro.

My God.



Comilly's dead? Not just my daughter.

My husband died also.

It must be fatethat I survived alone.

Have you seen your mother? No.

Oh? She never wrote you?She volunteers at the refugee camp.

Wait, she's alive?! Do you remember the church?That hill.

You and Comilly used to play there.

Thank you, ma'am! Just be careful! All hands, return to ship!Enemy planes detected! Prepare for air attack! – Bandits?- Y es, sir.

I 'm not readinga friendly I FF signal.

They're 1 0 km out overthe ocean and headed towards us.

Should we launch the White Base, sir? No, that'd onlymake us easier to spot.

You're right.

We'll have to bring them down.






before we rendezvouswith the Medea transport plane.

Aye, sir.

Core-Fighter, ready to launch! Moving out! What's that behind us?! A fighter?! Too slow! Take us down! Trying to run, huh?! Fire! Fire! Damn, and it'sjust a patrol plane! There it is! An airplane! Isn't that a Federal Forces fighter? It looks Iike one.

This could be trouble.

Wow, a real fighter! Cool! Could you wait a second? You're in theFederation Forces, right? I don't know why you've come, but could you hide that fighter? Why? I'm just.



Well, there's a Zeon frontlinebase near that mountain there.

They come here oncea day to check us out.

You can do whatever youwant here after it's hidden.

I understand.


Amuro, is that you? Amuro! Mom.



Amuro! Mom! Amuro! Mom! I'm sorry, but the fighter.



Of course.

Amuro, go and hide it.

We'll talk when you get back.

– Your son?- Yes.

So, the Zeon attackedthe Side as well.

And you don't know whathappened to your father? The soldiers are coming back! Don't move! – What kind of fighter is that?- Dunno! This is patrol group “Hot Dog.

“Have spotted an enemy fighter.

Current position: NE, point 203.

Altitude 3500.



Gotcha! Now to finish you! Damn, my oil's leaking! Bright, they got my oil tank! I damaged them, but they're getting away! What? Can you confirmwhere they are?! No, not like this.

Marker, can you track thatplane's escape route? Just that it's headed southwest.

Towards Amuro's hometown.



We should contact him.

Ryu! Can you get back here? Yeah, but.



– Amuro will take care of it.

– Sorry about this.

Sayla! Send Amurothe alert signal! Aye, sir.

Okay, folks!Shut up and don't move! We got a report of an enemyfighter landing in this area.

You want to tell us about it?Anybody know anything? Do you know about the airplane, kid?Why don't you tell me about it? I don't know anything! Obviously not in my fan club.

I'll give you some chocolate.

I don't want it! I wantmy mom and dad back! Ooh, I'm scared.

Guess I keep my chocolate, then.

What was that?! Why do they have to call me now?! I said, what was that noise?!Now talk! I'm eighty-nine years old.

You there!Who's sleeping in that bed?! N- No one.

Just somebody who's hurt.

Let me see him! He's my son! He's hurt! If you got nothing to hide, then lemme see him.



Amuro, wait! Amuro! Amuro! Amuro.



The Zeon will blame us for this.

What'll we do? Those men could havechildren of their own.






andyoushotatthem?! How could you.



? What, you'd ratherthey'd have shot me?! This is war! I know.



I know, but.



Shooting at another human being.



! Mom.






You don't.



… Iove me, do you? That's not true! There isn't a mother whodoesn't love her son! Liar! Amuro! Amuro, is anything wrong? No.

All right.

We have an emergency.

A Zeon patrol plane isheaded your way.

Be careful.

The White Base is launching andwill rendezvous with you! Roger.

Amuro! I didn't raiseyou to be like this! Please, go back tothe way I remember you.

This is.



This is war! I 'm ashamed you're my son! There it is.

Everyone's justthinking about themselves! I'm not.



I'm not doingthis because I want to! I don't care ifthere's a base or not! Damn, it didn't make it back! Scramble anti-aircraft weaponry!Launch the Dopps! I didn't hit them! No, you don't! The Medea! That's right, it's timefor it to rendezvous with the White Base! The White Base never shouldhave hid near the coastline! Was it becausehis father raised him? He wasn't like this before.



He wouldn't have hurt a fly! Those precious supplies! Have that Core-Fighterpull back! Give me that! Who else?! Who else?! Core-Fighter, pull back!It's dangerous to hang around here! We're retreating? So, how do we handle repairing the WhiteBase and taking in the civilians? We'll move therendezvous 200 km north.

Damned amateurs.

Nothing but trouble! You don't want to stay? I do, but I havefriends on that ship.

Is this your mother? Thank you fortaking care of Amuro.

We owe our lives to Amuro's skill.




? It's true.

His actionstoday were exemplary.

You think so? What will you do, Amuro? We're about to leave.

Yes, sir.

Stay well, Mother.

If you'll excuse us.

We'll look after your son.




Course clear! Go on! We'll rendezvouswith the Medea! We should have theengine repairs finished by dawn.

It's okay.

Now, then, you had a question for me? Why aren't we being disciplined?And why are we still getting supplies? According to your battle reports, this ship is doingmuch better than expected.

And it looks like they're planninga major operation in Europe.

They've decided to leavethe White Base in your hands.

Have you ever heard of Newtypes? A Newtype? What's that? The Zeon are apparently researchingthe answer to that question.

They say they're a little like espers.

People with good intuition.

Hm, if we had people like that, we'd have wiped out.






all the Zeon inthe area a long time ago.

But you've managed to survive, Lieutenant J.



Lieutenant junior grade? Me?! What do you want, Amuro?! Nothing.

You're supposed to be asleep! Yes, sir.

Kid! Lieutenant Bright is correct.

Sleeping is a pilot's job, too.

Yes, ma'am.

I'll remember that.

Where were you? In the toilet.

The toilet's that way.

So what?! Something wrong? Nothing.

Haro, come.

What's with her? Amuro, have you eaten yet? Amuro, have you eaten yet?! Sir? Not yet, sir.

We're going to be cuttingthrough Zeon-patrolled territory.

Stand by in the Gundam! Aye, sir! Lieutenant Bright, this isLieutenant Matilda's escape route.

This is the White Base's.

Both courses are clear.

So, we cross the oceanand head for Europe? That's the plan.

I should be back in Zeonin two months, Father.

But, before that, I want toachieve one decisive triumph.

I don't want thepeople to laugh at me.






for being made an admiralsimply because I 'm your son.

Well, then.

I look forward tothe day I may see you again.

Are you still here? I know how you feel, Highness.

But you still have dutiesto fulfill as the sovereign.

Very well.

ZABl! ZABl! ZABl! So, what's so interesting? Sir, we seem to havepicked up an unfamiliar ship.

Oh? Let me see.

I think it'sthe Trojan Horse.

Are you thinking this is a chancefor us to avenge Lord Garma? Don't be hasty, Hamon.

Where they are is prettyfar from our base.

We have to calculate the distance.

Our Zanzibarshould have no problem.






but our escorts arejust re-entry capsules.


So, do we just let them go? My orders are to avenge Lord Garma.

And you don't take direct ordersfrom Admiral Dozle lightly.

But we're re-entering now.

It's impossible.

I thought you hated men wholet opportunities slip away.

Amuro, I'm coming in.

More repairs? Yeah.

Amuro, you look sick.


Do I? What is it? The Gundam's auxiliary computer.

Eat it before it gets cold, okay? Sure.

Amuro, your brainwavelevels are falling.

Amuro! I 'm fine, Haro.

Haro, don't bother him.


See you.

I'll beback soon for the dishes.

Oh, I'd better eat.

And where is Char? He probably went back to wherehe came from.

Right, Dozle? I see.

Yes, ma'am.

At once.

Intensify port-side fire! They're right over us! Should lenter the clouds to starboard? That'll take us into the storm! What was that?! Maybe it's a new Zeon weapon! Don't worry! No matter what theyuse, the Gundam will protect us! Lieutenant!It's a new Feddie weapon! Don't panic! They call this”lightning” here on Earth! Darling.



I've seen this beforewhen I came to Earth.

Relax, Hamon.

Although it is rather scarywhen seen from this close! Is there any place we canland and lose the enemy?! Aye, sir.

Open the infra-red sensor, please.

Begin laser sensor terrain scan.

There! Confirmheading and entry angle! – Can you do it, Mirai?- Aye! White Base speed: zero.

Right! Well done, Mirai.

Gundam! Guncannon! Guntank!Stand by to launch! Deploy ouranti-aircraft batteries! Amuro! I don't believe it!You're still here?! Amuro, hey! Amuro! Wake up! We have to launch! Ryu? Wake up! You're nogood to anyone like this! Ryu.



Now get up! All right.

You don't have to hit me.

Come on, overshoot us.



You're sure it's them? Yes, sir.

The magneticsignature's almost off the scale! Signal flare FW! Lt.

Ramba Ral! We've sighteda signal flare at 7 o'clock! You're sure it isn't lightning? – Yes, sir!- Right! Emergency turn! Enemy vessel, closing! Open the main guns! Gundam, Guncannon, stand by to launch! Shoot blind if you have to, just fire missiles! Ah, the infamous Trojan Horse.

Start collecting data.

I think I prefer seeing you like this, about to launch into battle.






to when you command from in here.

So do l.

I think this rolesuits me better.

Until later.



And leave my men alone! Acous! Cozun! All set? – Yes, Lieutenant!- All set! Acous! Cozun! This isour first battle on Earth! Even if the enemy mobile suitscome out, don't pursue them too far! Roger! Hamon, we're going out! I expect success.

Don't be impatient, Hamon.

Sorry! We can't stayin this sector any longer! Well done.

Return to base.

We'll be joining you shortly.

Roger! May the battlebe a swift one! What's going on?Those Komusais are leaving.

We've got our chance! Gundam! Guncannon!What's wrong?! – Bright!- What? Amuro's gotnew-recruit burn-out.

He's what?! Send him out! We can't fightthose Zakus otherwise! Cure him with some action, huh? Amuro, get going!You gotta launch! Amuro, you're launching! All set? Amuro! Do you read?You're locked on the catapult.

We're about to launch you! Huh? Sure thing, Sayla.

I didn't hear your answer! I said sure thing.

Better launch, huh? Never mind!Sayla, launch the Gundam! Amuro, snap out of it! What the.



?! Ryu! Kai!Give Amuro some cover! All right, I'm going!Lay off the gunfire! Uh-oh.

Acous! A cracker! What's.



? Why, you.



! What the.



?! What?! Another one's come out! Is that a mobile suit, too?! Hayato, hurry!Give him some cover fire! I'm worried about Amuro! I can do this! I can!But what's that new mobile suit?! Amuro, don't get in too close!Remember that weapon! No, you don't! This isn't a Zaku you'refighting, pal! Not a Zaku! This thing's different!More armor and power than a Zaku! Amuro, get up! Acous! Cozun! Fall back!We're returning to the ship! Roger! They're in!Get 'em locked down, now! Tell the bridge to activatethe blinders and withdraw at once! What the.



?! They ran.



? Or did they let us go? We have lost a hero! But does this mean we are finished?! No! We are only beginning! How is it the Principality ofZeon has fought on until now.






when our strength is only1/30th that of the Earth Federation?! Citizens! I say it isbecause what we fight for is just! Damned Gihren.

He's broadcastingthis live around the world.

Amuro, you should see this, too.

Y- Y es, sir.

For 50 years, a handful of elite.






have extended the EarthFederation's control out to space! How many times has the Federationquashed our demands for freedom? God will not abandonthe Principality of Zeon.






so long as each one ofus is fighting for our freedom! My younger brother, Garma Zabi who was beloved byyou all, is dead! Why?! Because he was a stupid kid.

History demands that we, the chosen nation.






must dominate this new age! Bartender.

I 'll get that for you.

Okay with you? The Royal Guard, right? Is it so obvious? I could sense it.

You're one of Kycilia's men? Well done, Commander.

Zeon Deikun said that therebirth of man would begin.






with us, thosewho live in space! Amuro, are you alright? I know I've been worrying you.

I 'm okay now.

Hang in there.


All of you havelost fathers and sons.






to the Federation 'ssenseless resistance! Keep this sadness andhatred alive within you! That is what Garmadied to show us! If we concentrate this hatred we shareand smash the Federal Forces.






then true victorywill be within our grasp! And that victory will bethe ultimate vindication.






to all of those whohave died in this conflict! My people! My people, transformyour grief into rage and arise! Never forget we, the citizensof Zeon, are the chosen! We, the superior race, shall save mankind! Sieg Zeon! Sieg Zeon! Sieg Zeon! Sieg Zeon! This is what we're fighting? What's he talking about?! He says that when all he wantsis to create a Zabi dictatorship?! Dictator.




History of the Suit in 22 Minutes: The Evolution of Menswear from 1800 to Today

Welcome back to the Gentleman's Gazette!In today's video, we share with you the history and the evolution of the suit in22 minutes.

Even though many elements of the suit, as we know it today, have remained unchanged since its inception, there are certainlydifferences in the details of a suit from 2020 compared to a suit from the1980s or 1940s.

First of all, what exactly is a suit? The term “suit” is derived fromthe French term “Suivre” which means to follow.

Meaning, the jacket follows thepants or vice versa.

So a suit is a combination of a jacket and a pair ofpants in a matching fabric.

It's not just the color but also made out of the same fabric.

Like many aspects of classic menswear, the origins of the suit can also betraced back to Beau Brummell.

He was the prototypical gent in the 19th centuryEngland.

Before Beau Brummell, menswear was heavily influenced by the FrenchCorp and evolved around heavily embroidered fabrics such as velvet andknee breeches and stockings.

Beau Brummell replaced all of this with lonetrousers worn with boots and a coat that didn'thave much ornamentation or color.

Frankly, Brummell may not have been the first oneto simplify the classic French men's wardrobe because at that point in time, it had already become unpopular.

French menswear was negatively associated withthe French Revolution and people who wore it were beheaded in the guillotine.

Nevertheless, Beau Brummell definitely popularized the new less ornamentalstyle.

Now, it seems like the top and the bottom of Beau Brummell's outfits weren'talways exactly the same and matching but the whole silhouette and the more mutedcolor stream laid the groundwork for the modern suit, as we know it today.

By the start of the Victorian era which lasted from 1837 to 1901, the first and foremostgarment a man would wear was a frock coat.

It was basically a black coat that resembles modern overcoats.

It had a single vent in the back and waseither single or double breasted.

In terms of length, it reached down allthe way to the knees that's why it resembles an overcoat.

While the singlebreasted version of a frock coat was more common, the double-breasted versionwas more formal because it was also known as the Prince Albert.

Later in theVictorian era, the frock coat basically split up in two different elements.

Onthe one hand, we had the morning coat that kept the tails, on the other hand, wehad the lounge suit which lost it.

While the morning suit remained the length, it nowhad open quarters rather than the closed quarters of a frock coat and it oftenhad just a single button and it wasn't double-breasted anymore.

At the time, itbecame the number one option for formal daywear but in today's world, it'sprobably even more formal and typically only worn at Royal Weddings or highsociety weddings.

Maybe in England, it's a little different where you can still seethe regular Joe wearing a morning coat for their wedding but in the US and outside of England, it's typically just done so in very certain circles either bypeople who really appreciate classic men's clothing or because they have a certain status in society.

If you want to learn more about morning dress, pleasecheck out our in-depth morning dress guide here.

While frock codes and morningcoats could technically be worn with matching pair of trousers, more often, they were worn with contrasting trousers.

Still in a darker color scheme butnevertheless, they weren't made out of a matching fabric.

On the other hand, thelounge suit consists of a top and bottom of matching fabric.

Because of that, it wasalso known as Dittoes which is derived from the term “Ditto” which meanssame fabric for tops and bottoms.

The lounge suit was originally developed in1850s to the 1860s in Scotland.

It was made out of heavier fabric and was meant to be agarment for casual outdoor occasions.

Nowadays, in the mind of most people, asuit is a very formal garment but during the Victorian era, it was theopposite.

It was a casual garment that was not meant to be formal at all.

Specifically, the matching aspect of trousers and pants made it less formalbecause frock coats and morning coats were worn with somewhat contrasting trousers.

Another difference was obviously the length.

It was a much shorter coat withoutthe tails and was cut more sack like without pronounced front darts.

As thename implies, the lounge suit was primarily a garment for the casuallounge, something to be comfortable in, especially in the British countryside.

Ofcourse, at the time, central heating was not the norm and sosuits were always worn with a vest or a waistcoat that was matching so youalways had a three-piece suit.

As we started the 20th century, the suit, as weknow it today, was pretty much developed.

From that point on, the shape was defined, it was merely details that changed.

It could be the lapel width, the jacketlength, the buttoning point, the height of the gorge, the type of fabrics that wereused, but overall, it was just an adaptation to an existing model.

In thefirst decade of the 1900s, which is also known as the Edwardian era, the loungesuit persisted.

It became more and more popular.

The more formal frock coats andmorning coats were still around and were typically worn by older men but theylost ground very quickly.

If you ever had a chance to touch a suit from theEdwardian era, you'll notice that the fabric is extremely heavy and coarsebecause on the one hand, the fabric finishing wasn't as refined as it is today and onthe other hand, it was quite expensive and again, there was no central heatingand because of that, suits had to be worn inside.

Many households stillheated with coal and cities were, in general, a dirty sooty place to be.

Because of that, the city's suit was typically tailored out of darker coloredfabric.

On the flipside, country suits typically had more patterns and browntones in them.

For example, if you watch the firstepisodes of Downton Abbey today, you can see the trend that country suits areless formal and more colorful than their city suit counterparts.

The 1920s were anexciting decade for the suit as it went from super slim to fuller towards theend.

Right after World War I, the suit had a strong military influence.

The jacketwas cut trim, maybe slightly longer at a higher buttoning point, and trouserswere quite slim with cuffs and relatively short, however, by the end of the decade, fashion-forward suits already had theprecursor of the drape suit which meant there was more fabric in the chest andalso the pants were cut a little wider.

Drape and the drape suit really becamepopular in 1930s England in the US and you can learn more about ithere.

During 20s, trousers all had a very high rise especially compared to today'spants.

All jackets were cut pretty tightly towards the beginning of the1920s, towards the end, they had become wider in the shoulder with a bit morewaist suppression and in combination with the high rise pants, you get thatvisual illusion of longer legs and a pronounced waistline.

While the pant legsinitially touched the sock, by the end of the decade, the most fashion-forwardsuits had an opening of eleven and a half inches.

However, it wasn't a flarecut, it was a straight cut and sometimes even a tapered cut so there was lots ofroom in your trousers.

If you want get a better idea of this style in action, youmay want to watch the series Jeeves and Wooster and we also cover their Styleshere.

Because it was the roaring 20s, which is also known as the Jazz Age, thebig difference in terms of suiting materials was that they were morestylish, there was more flash, there were more colors, more patterns, andeverything was bit more lively compared to previous generations ofsuits.

There was also an increasing interest in accessorizing their suits with, let's say, pocket squares or shirts with collar pins.

In the end, it was a rebelliontowards the tradition of having dark suits and muted colors without boldpatterns.

For example, if you watch the show Boardwalk Empire, you see exactly what I mean.

You see really loud suits in bold colors, stripes, and it's just a very interesting time for the suit.

Likewise, the Great Gatsbyreflects this perfectly with his pink suit.

The 1920s were also known for thedouble-breasted waistcoat which was typically worn underneath a singlebreasted jacket with notch lapels.

Today, they would be considered quite unusual.

If you see a double-breasted waistcoat, it typically features a jacket with asingle or maybe two buttons and peak lapels.

You'd also won't button thejacket in order to show the double-breasted waist.

The 1930s were characterized by a suit that had a heavy drape cut with wideshoulder, a lot of waist suppression, high-rise trousers that were just cutvery full and just tapered slightly towards the shoes.

It was the number onestyle in England and in the US but also, places like Vienna.

Jackets weretypically a bit longer and had no vents in the back for an ideal clean line whenyou would stand.

Also bear in mind, the fabrics were sold quite heavy so theydraped really well and they didn't wrinkle very much.

Overall, the look wasvery masculine and it built the basis of a very heroic look on the silver screen.

Just look at Cary Grant or Clark Gable who perfectly used the suit to underlinetheir personalities in the movies.

To learn more about the style of both of them, please check our respective guides and videos here.

Overall, I'd say a 1930s drapestyle was a little more refined, more tapered towards the leg compared to thelate 20s suits.

Even today, the 1930s are often referred to as Golden Age ofclassic menswear in big part because of the way the suits were designed and youcan learn more about that to get a better idea of it by checking out our ebookGentlemen of the Golden Age.

Now in the following decade, the suit changed a lot.

World War II meant that everything had to be rationed and so there was no morefabric for these elaborate full cut large suits.

Instead, the 1940 suits wascharacterized by minimalism.

The gray flannel suit became the optionof choice for professional everyday wear, it wasn't double-breasted, it was single breasted, it had narrow lapels and a very trim cut trouserwithout cuffs in order to save fabric.

For the same reasons, waistcoats or vestsbecame unpopular and if you look at the suit from the 1940s, it is very close tothe fashion of a 2020 suit because it's lean and trimmed and overall, very slim.

Of course, the fabrics were still a lot heavier than they are today and they also hada bit more texture than what you would get today.

The exception in 1940s minimalsuit was the rebellious Zoot suit.

It was a product of thecounterculture rebellion youth, particularly in African American andMexican communities.

They had really baggy pants, a long jacket, and everything wasoversized and excessive.

The shoulders were super padded and often, peoplecriticized it as being unpatriotic because it put your own idea of fashionbeyond the rationing of fabric.

During the 1950's, the post-war rebelliondefinitely had an impact on the suit.

To the end of austerity, some people wentback to the suit style from before the warso lapels came wider, pants had pleats again, and it wasn't as slim anymore.

Pleated pants were particularly popular because they allow for a range ofmovement and more comfort and that, by the way, is still true today.

The vest ina three-piece suit continued to decline because central heating was more or lesswell established at the time and so the need for extra heat inside had vanished.

Again, it was a post-war period and just like after the 1920s when there was thispost-war rebellion against the previous generation's style, the same thing happenedin the 50s.

It wasn't just the zoot suit but many other young men rebelledagainst the style of their fathers and grandfathers by wearing t-shirts orjeans or leather jackets.

Another example of this rebellion, maybe so in a moresubtle way, was the Ivy League style which was epitomized by the sack suitstyle jacket.

It is usually defined by a three-roll-two jacket with a singlecenter vent and pants without pleats.

The other style of jacket was always single breasted and had very little or no padding in the shoulders which made for a verynatural silhouette which is more closely associated with Italy today but in fact, the Americans have done that for a long time too.

This was a time when BrooksBrothers really dominated in American history and overall, the casualization ofclothes also didn't make hold of the suit so Ivy League style wascharacterized by combinations, more so than the suit.

Yes, the suit was stillaround but sport coats have become more popular due to their increased textureand color variation.

Now at the end of the 50s, we saw yet another subculture in suits known as the Mod suit.

It was slim-fitting with narrow lapels.

Itwas worn with narrow ties, non pleated pants that were very thin and straight cut.

Forgood examples of 1950 suits, you can look at Frank Sinatra or the Rat Pack, they really epitomized the style of the time.

During 1960s, the styleof the 50s was more or less extended when it came to suits.

So you had closelyfitting suits with some shoulder paddings that were worn with narrowties.

Trousers were rather narrow, a little more tapered towards the ankleand short so you wouldn't see a break on the shoe.

Even if there were cuffs or nocuffs, fabrics were still rather heavy and textured but they made someadvancements and now added nylon and new artificial fibers to the fabric becausethat was a new thing.

At that same vein, sport coats with bolder patterns seem to befavored for more muted ones.

A good glimpse of the style of the 60s can beseen in this series Mad Men where you can see, for example, people wearing boldplaid coats, slim suits to the office.

The style definitely came to halt in 1970swhich can be considered to be a low point in the history of the suit andmen's fashion, in general.

Suits were still relatively tight but had reallybig lapels, they were rather flashy, and pants oftentimes in a flare cut.

Nowinterestingly, the 70s sort of returned the three-piece suit but it wasn't formal atall.

It was rather casual and more part ofthe disco culture.

Just think of John Travolta in Saturday Night Fever.

Alongwith the bright colors, synthetics were now predominantly used in 1970s suitswhich didn't make them better in the long term and just overall, it was adecade to be forgotten.

Now, the 80s on the other hand, were a lotbetter for the suit.

If we had to break it down to one thing, it would be probablythe power suit.

It was popularized first by Richard Gere as American Gigolo butalso on TV by Miami Vice.

The central figure in this suit silhouette wasGiorgio Armani.

It had a suit jacket that was soft yet broad in the shoulders, hadwider lapels with a much lower gorge yet a very very little buttoning point.

Overall, Armani created a very defining suit silhouette but today, it is easilydated as the 1980s because of that.

Another great example of the power suitwas the stuff that Michael Douglas wore is Gordon Gekko in the film Wall Street.

All of those suits were designed by Alan Flusser and they're the epitome of whata power suit is to this day.

To learn more about the Gordon Gecko style, pleasecheck out this video here.

In short, you saw the return the double-breasted suit, you saw pinstripes again and full cut pants.

Despite the fact that Armaniessentially reduced the structure of the suit and made it very soft, it was stillconsidered to be something that had strong or large shoulders and a defiantsilhouette.

In general, the 80s were a time of excess and a celebration ofcapitalism and the power suit was a direct expression of that time.

Now, the1990s were another low point of the suit.

They basically took the worst aspects ofthe 80 suits, pronounced it, made it even more ugly.

The 90s suit was more clownish;single breasted jackets sometimes had three or even four buttons, double-breasted oneshad six buttons but only the very bottom one was buttoned on an extremely lowbuttoning point so just the proportions looked off.

Pants were boxy andbaggy and were too long and puddled around the ankles.

In contrast to that, the early 2000s saw the return of the slim fit suit.

The new millennium broughta total reaction to the fully cut puddling suits of the 80s and 90s andwent back more to a minimalist style that we had seen before in the 40s.

Some would even argue that it went back more to a 1960s mod style suit.

Now, notonly did the suit get slimmer but it also got shorter and the buttoning pointgot higher.

At the same time, some people preferred to wear the black suit as aneasy way to create a minimalist uniform that was reduced.

Pants were often hemmedquite short, jackets had narrow lapels, and a perfect example of that is Tom Brownwhich made extremely short jackets and pants.

Others like Tom Ford, for example, had still slimmer cut suits but they weren't as extreme.

Because of that, TomFord suits can still be worn today versus Tom Brown suits are more a fashionstatement than something a regular man would wear in an everyday setting.

Inthe following decade, society, in general, became more casual and the need for asuit really disappeared.

At the same time, there has been a resurgence in classicmen's clothing of people who don't have to wear a suit but who intentionallywant to wear a suit because they like the look of it and how it makes themfeel.

While popular suits, in general, are still slim, the gorge on the jacket hasmoved further up especially for peak lapel jackets and the buttoning pointhas come up also.

Sometimes, the jackets have even gotten shorter to the extentwhere they don't even cover part of your bum anymore.

Suit Supply became aworldwide phenomenon reflecting this trend towards a slimmer shorter jacket, higher buttoning point suit.

Likewise, Internet technology enabled allentrepreneurs to come up with online made-to-measure services so people cancustomize their suit online without the need of having to see a tailor.

Nevertheless, with the general resurgence and interest for the topic of suits andclassic menswear, there are probably more bespoke tailors today than there were 20years ago.

Thanks to the Internet, interest groups fromall across the world can now connect, share, and drop their knowledge and sothe general knowledge about suit and classic men's style has definitelyincreased.

In most recent years, the casual three-roll-two jacket with morenatural shoulders in a slim silhouette and sometimes even string trousers havebecome more popular, so it's all about getting more casual with more textureand brighter colors in a jacket that is soft and unstructured and sometimes, evenmade out of a knit fabric which is extremely flexible and feels more likewearing a sweater rather than a traditional suit jacket.

So what will thefollowing decade mean for the suit? It's hard to tell but we, at theGentleman's Gazette, will always focus on the classic style that is stillrelevant in the present.

in today's video I'm wearing a dark blue double-breastedsuit made out of a very fine worsted wool fabric from Vitale Barberis Canonicoit's a custom suit and it's extremely soft in the shoulders in the fabric itreally feels more like a sweater than anything else because it's such a finehigh twisted yarn it is prone to wrinkles at the same time I can steam itout in the shower I am combining it with a double cuffed summer shirt in bolderstripes of white yellow blue and brown and a yellow silk knit tie from FortBelvedere that matches the linen pocket square with cross stitches and ofcontrasting blue which pick up the color in the outfitmy shoes are hand patinaed Brown monk straps that have a nice color gradationbetween yellow brownish light brown and darker Browns and I'm tying it togetherwith a suit using a pair of shadow striped socks from Fort Belvedere in blue andgreyish blue my cufflinks are gold monkey fists from Fort Belvedere and youcan find them in our shop here.

BOX FORT ROBOT SUIT!! 📦🤖 Nintendo LABO Box Fort & Gameplay

Eyyyyo whats going on guys ; Papa Jake here from team epiphany And we are back with a brand new video and today guys we are doing something I have been wanting to do for months now for years now for my entire life Logan geez It's the Nintendo label sort of Logan I have been wanting to build a box fort robot for the longest time and every time I came up with the plans Logan said Jake it would not work Jake it is impossible.

You cannot build a box for robot that would work, but today Thanks to the Nintendo labels.

We can do that so guys if you have not seen this yet, Nintendo La voz it is a really awesome kit that allows you to build both with cardboard, which is I mean that's like uber Alli? I'm like the cardboard building master, so you can build creative stuff that actually works in this case We're gonna be using it to build a box fort robot.

And My good friend Ksaun wanted me to do this And if you guys like these videos if you guys like us using this we have so many different ways that we can incorporate this into our videos I mean you could build a robot Logan like this But then we could make him even cooler like we can add like armor to them and like Extended weapons and all sorts of really cool stuff So let me know down below guys ever you think this is an awesome idea Oh and guys, I almost forgot check this out check out what we're wearing we got our new merch on dude It's the design and discovery that's one of my favorite designs guys We just launched our brand new line emerge if you guys have not checked it out yet Here are some of the designs popping up on your screen right now But there is a link in the description down below go grab one of your very own shirts hoodies Sweaters anything you want and let me know if you guys grab something I love to tweet it out and follow you guys who are buying the merch and they are selling out fast guys Yeah, send us pictures of you guys wearing the merch go check it out link down below of course But guys we have an objective today, and that is to build the very first worki box for bro box We have to put our best science skills to the test open this up and build it using our cardboard master skills now I'm assuming this video take us like two minutes to build right Logan like solid two minutes I don't know.

I mean it looks really entertaining so Hey, where's the duct tape you can't you can't build the carboy without duct tape I've got some weird folding stuff here I'm actually really excited to open this up So let's start diving into this guy's and like I said if you guys think this is awesome.

Let's try and crush 25, 000 likes on this video and we will continue the series But uh let's uh, let's open this up and see what we got dude check this Oh my gosh.

There is so many pieces of cardboard in here so it looks like all of these are I guess like the schematics as you can see and Inside it has well all the different.

I don't wanna I don't want to lose them either so these kind of pop out and you're gonna use these to build your box for robot now there is a lot of Cardboard in fact they're like a la de la.

We might you know I first going into this I was like I don't need instructions in fact looking at I Sort of shredded the instructions because I was like we don't need those you shredded the instructions I think we need at the moment box for building master.

I don't need instructions, but this stuff is super cool It's a little complex alright It's a little complex alright guys So we've got all of our pieces of cardboard here that we're gonna be using to make our box board robot now We've got also a Nintendo switch, which has all the instructions that I found them on here Logan, so don't worry I didn't technically destroy all the instructions unless I destroyed the game itself But it looks like all we just follow this and build ourselves an awesome robot actually really awesome it is I like it you like move it around and be like what does the bottom look like and then the? Top look like and you actually like move forward throughout the entire thing and see how to like fold it and all that other cool stuff, so Without further ado I think we need to start our time-lapse and start building this robot because I want to do cool robot stuff like Break down houses and stuff.

I mean maybe something less destructive like say Pat's So check it out.

I wanna do an update for you And show you how the robots coming up along so far and that wha that's that much per robot yeah, Logan It's it's the it's the robot helmet.


Look check this out guys so this goes on your head like so and then Goes up like this or down like this Dude yeah sack of VR headsets baby sweet, so this is done guys and next up We got to get working on the Pistons which are gonna be used to control the robot and do awesome fighting stuff And I think there's also a backpack and a few other cool accessories, so we got a lot more building to do But so far this box for robot is coming along sweet in our box.

We're building skills are making this awesome.

Let's keep building Update I've been working on it for a while now and As you guys can see well first of all check out these sweet shades.

You know how cool Do these look looking fresh and fly with these? I have to admit Jake these do look really awesome Right if there's a whole bunch of extra stuff in here that I'm already seeing we keep used for our box for videos not only That guys, but I'm learning a lot about cardboard design.

I know how to make cardboard work now I mean I built this whole backpack so there's a lot of useful pays in here that we can use for videos But check this out, so it's not done yet We still got a little bit more of the robot to do before we can start playing with it well Here's the backpack so far so it goes on like so and then these these little pulley strings here Or how we're gonna be activating it So this is like the foot one and then actually move stuff inside the backpack you might be able to see inside there Yeah, so these will move inside which will allow me to actually control the robot How cool is that guys so I still a little bit to do? We've got the backpack done? We've got the the head helmet here, which is really sick, but we can even like spruce it up and add more to it But I know you guys want to see us actually use this robot in order to do that we gotta get back to building so Let's cut back to the time-lapse and try and get this thing done Alright guys, so it is the next day, and we've officially completed the Nintendo label robot That's right.

It did take a little bit longer than I anticipated There's a lot of moving parts in this thing, but it is now complete and Logan I'm officially ready to become a robot fighting master That's right now All I have to do is suit up with all my cool robot gear And I'm ready to jump into the virtual world to fight crime or in this case It's actually just like knock buildings over, but but anyway let's show off how it actually looks here guys So this is of course the completed awesome Helmet for the robot which is looking pretty cool already shut that off and here is the backpack now this thing is Beefy look at this not only does it look really sweet But that's everything you need to control the robot you have hand movement stuff here that you can actually move The robot's hands you have feet movement down here and the interior is really cool I don't know if I got to show this off, but this is what actually looks like when you open it up here So you can actually maneuver this so if need to get in here There's a really cool feature where you can like stick in a tool kit and start tinkering around with the robot which I think is Really sweet so without further ado guys I think it's time to gear up with this and jump into the virtual world Cuz I want to become a robot so it says it taps the joy consonant robot alright So the right joique on here slides into the back here.

It's the first Official setting there we go alright.

That's that wall robot Alright so then this one goes into the face mask here So this is just gonna slide in like so alright So now that we have all of the pieces in I just got to put this on and I'm ready to jump in alright guys So check it I'm now in the game dude look a robot who's this so I can walk around by doing this I can turn Actually by turning in real life, and then I thought I just got something here this big green panel punch it Yeah Break it all out huzzah Robot Jake coming in better not be hiding from me Like turn my head, which is really sweeping on gas check this out going into visor mode zooming in whoa? Oh Wait I got my I got my I Got my hands loading here and fire is so sweet.

Oh check this out so but for my visor afraid I'm walking around this house to get some bad house walk over here mister blue thing you gotta get out of here Okay, so now I got a little bit space right for this dude check check this out already Not only am I robot, but I'm also Plane Dude look I'm flying so if I hold my hand sound like this I basically turning the iron man, so I can like fly around this Boat here we go and then if I look around like Can actually fly around and just kind of control myself like a big plane? I feel like got like iron managed something we put my visor down here zoom in oh hi everyone down there You look like a little ants Papa take the robots flying around on the land of green bars.

You're off Break that kick that let's go order tickets already.

Oh, hey oh Oh, well the rates Derrick now, oh wait I can fire with these oh, dude.

I'm like it trees and stuff I can't feel bad for blue Right Carmona's sake so I'm like bending down on my knees like this And if I want to jump up transform turn on fly mode and then fly over here, Oh No There we go i'ma try and lay low this building here all right I feel like they should definitely make like an Iron Man version of this game.

It'd be sweet and fire Broke Almost about to break.

Yeah, look at this That's a far way down guys.

All right see that car there.

I'm gonna jump off this and land on that car right You know I'm a late on that building there, and I can do this.

I know how to do this.

I'm a robot Okay, here we go Guys this is so sweet I could do this all day and the cool thing about this guy's is the more games that come out for it the more we? Can actually incorporate this into our videos and like it's cardboard? So this is my favorite thing in the world and like I said at the start of this video guys We have the other Nintendo label packs So if you think it'd be really cool to use that like maybe make the Nintendo label motorcycle but not just make the motorcycle make an entire motorcycle like use our own cardboard to make a full one that we can stick a life-size motorcycle life-sized motorcycle you can drive around with how cool would that be Smack the like one down below guys and comment down below if you think we should keep using these to make really cool inventions But yeah, this is I like it cuz it's like when we build with cardboard That's what I imagined in my head, and I actually get to see you now, so that's really sweet But I think this is where we're gonna wrap up the video for today guys So like I said smack that like button down below.

Let's try crush 25, 000 likes and if you guys haven't already Zoom in to that link down below and check out our brand new merchandise because you do not want to miss out on some of This sweet new merch and don't forget guys I have a brand new app in both Google Play and the iOS store if you want to keep up to date with my life See behind the scenes get notified about new videos go out download the official Pappa Jake app link for that is also down below It's completely free and you can talk to me and ask me questions We can video chat all that fun stuff So I'll see you guys next time for another awesome video this has been Pappa Jake, and hope you guys have an awesome day.

How Can Spider-Man Climb While Wearing a Suit? (Because Science w/ Kyle Hill)

– Today's episode issponsored by Puzzle Quest.

(web shooting and grunting) Spider-Man has a problem.

He's supposed to beable to do anything that a spider can and, yet, hecovers it all up with a suit.

If a radioactive spider bityou and gave you spider powers, why would you make a suit that covered up all of your spider hairs? You know, the thingthat lets you 'spider'? I think there is a way around the suit's stickiness problem and it's with science.


(light techno music) Uncle Carben.

Here is the scene I'm talking about from the first Spider-Man film.

In it Peter Parker grows tinybarbed hairs on his hands, and presumably, his feet, and it's implied that it's those hairs that allow him to scale surfaces like a spider can.

But, if that's the case, wouldn't putting a full bodysuit over all of your skin negate the effect that that hair produces? Yes, yes it would.

But before we figure that out, how do spiders climb stuff? Here is a tiny, poorly drawn spider.

Now, enhance.

(light clicking) Those little hairs on its feet that you can see with your own eyes what are on Tobey Maguire's hands are called setae and theyare just micrometers thick.

They are very, very small, but that's not why spiders stick to stuff.

Now, enhance again.

(light clicking) At the end of every one of those setae are hundreds of spatulae.

They are just nanometersthick and the real reason why spiders can stick to stuff.

And maybe how the PowerpuffGirls' hands work.

Oh, gross! Let's take a closerlook at those spatulae.

These spatulae are so small, in fact, they are on the scale of individual atoms.

And because they are so small, if you brought them closeto another set of atoms, like the atoms that makeup a wall, for example, there can be a weak electrical attraction.

Because the electronsthat orbit the nucleii of atoms aren't really like particles, they're more like clouds of charge, if you bring two atomsclose enough together there is a chance thosecharges, as they whiz around, will end up attracting each other, even though the atomsthemselves may be neutral.

This is a weak force, but it's still something and it's called the Van der Waals Force.

Van der Waals forces are where most people trying to explainSpider-Man's stickiness stop.

(web shooting) If you add up all the tiny interactions at the atomic level over the millions of spatulae that spider's have, that explains how they stick to walls.

Even the Marvel Handbook, the official one, says something like this.

Spider-Man enhances theflux of interatomic forces on the surfaces that he touches, increasing the coefficient of friction between that surface and himself.

The first part is, essentially, Van der Waals forces and the second part is wrong, but we'll let that go for now.

But we can go further.

Do Van der Waals forces explain how a human-sized thingcould stick to a wall and does it solve the suit problem? If Spider-Man tried to climbwalls with actual spider hair, (squishing) it wouldn't work.

You may have heard of this study that came out a couple of years ago.

It looked at a number ofdifferent species to determine whether or not humans couldever climb like spiders.

It looked at 225 different species with Van der Waalsforces-enabled foot pads and concluded that across awide range of surface areas they were directlyproportional to the mass of that animal, from geckos to mites.

The authors of this studythen extrapolated it to the body mass of humansand, as you can see, the surface area would have to go way up.

The authors concluded that you would need to devote a full 40% of yourentire body's surface area to sticky Van der Waals pads in order to cling to a wall like Spider-Man.

This is far more than weever see Spider-Man use.

It'd be like if your whole chest was just one big spider foot andyou had to put your chest against a wall and kind of, like, shimmy around if you wanted to climb.

And then you'd kind of look like a, like Slug Man, and no one wants to be Slug Man, or SnailGirl, or Snail Boy.

But all this doesn't necessarily mean that Peter Parker can't climb stuff.

Another way to interpretthis study is that nature is focusing on surface areaand not actual stickiness of the Van der Waals padsacross a range of body sizes.

So, what if Peter Parker, instead of having a lot of surface area, had abnormally sticky Van der Waals pads? That's fine, it would get around that problem and we can'treally speak to that, we'd have to invent some new biology.

But, we still have the suit problem.

Because Van der Waalsforces work on the scale of nanometers, any suit, even if it's very thin, would interfere with that interaction.

And so, Spider-Man's suit needs to be made out of material that is just as sticky as his abnormally sticky hands and feet.

Do we know of anymaterial that can do that? If Spider-Man augmented his suit, just like he did with his web shooters, with science that we already have, he would be able to getaround the suit problem and climb just like a spider does.

Looking to the stickiness of gecko feet, university researchers at Dayton, Akron, the Air Force and the GeorgiaInstitute of Technology have created a materialout of carbon nanotubes.

A material so thin and so fine it has a Van der Waals interaction 10 times that of a gecko's foot.

And remember, the gecko isbasically the best at this.

Time to do the math.

If Peter Parker is 76 kilogramsand is under Earth's gravity and the new material madeout of carbon nanotubes can support a hundred newtons of weight for every square centimeter, then Spider-Man's suit would only need to devote seven and ahalf square centimeters, in total, to stickiness.

But is this enough? When Spider-Man is climbingit looks like he's only using his fingertips and, presumably, his toe tips.

So is there enough surface area across all of your fingers andtoes to hold you up? Well, given that each one of my fingertips is around three square centimeters, and I have 20 of those, I get nine.

Which means that there isnine times more surface area than you need to stickto a wall like Spider-Man if you're using thiscarbon nanotube material.

That means you could definitely climb like Spider-Man if your suit was using this material on justfingertips and toe tips.

In fact, you could climb a wall just like Spider-Man and hold your whole body weight on awall using just three.



(squirting) Oh, oh! Three fingers.

And also, Spider-Man's skin would need to be this sticky to work.

Eww, ugh, ehhhh, ehhhh! So how does Spider-Man climbwalls if he's wearing a suit? Well, Peter Parker is a science whiz, he would know that thenanoscale interactions that allow him to climba wall with his bare skin would be negated if a suit came in between a wall and his skin.

So, what I think he isdoing is augmenting his suit with science just like howhe did with the web shooters.

He has created a materialthat goes on the outside of the suit that gives itthe adequate stickiness to give him super spider powers.

Spider-Man can do anything a spider can.

And so his suit has to, too.

It just needs a little help.

Because science.

(webs shooting) (light techno music) Thank you so much for watching.

Make sure to follow meon Twitter @Sci_Phile where you can suggestideas for future episodes.

And on Facebook and Instagram where I'm now posting mini-episodes, Amy.

And if you want more sillinesscheck out one of my shows with my colleague, Dan Casey, it's very, it's very weird.

It's called Muskwatch, that'sall you need to know about it.

And if you want something alittle bit more, ooh, premium, check out my new show on ProjectAlpha.

com called the S.





E Program.

It's like Cosmos had aweird, long-haired baby with Mystery Science Theater 3000.


Special thanks to Marvel Puzzle Quest for sponsoring today's episode.

If you like Marvel and Match 3 Games check out Marvel Puzzle Quest, and homecoming is the perfecttime to start playing.

No, I'm not talking about teens, I'm talking about Spider-Man Homecoming.

An all-new five star Spider-Manhas been added to the game in celebration of the webslinger's upcoming film.

Recruit Spidey and playtwo all-new boss missions featuring the Sinister Six.

Grab it on the Apple AppStore or Google play now.

Thanks, Puzzle Quest.

It's not just about howSpider-Man sticks to stuff, it's also, if you'reclimbing, you think about it, it's also how you unstick from stuff.

Using that material thatwe just went through he'd be able to do three points ofcontact and climb just fine.

He could hold onto the wallwith just three fingers.

But how do you stick and then unstick? Well, the cool thing is the orientation of this material matters.

If it's at one angle it's stickyand it will stay on a wall.

If it is at another angle, it will just detach, that's how gecko feet work.

I mean, just using, (squirts) oh! Gotta stop.

Gotta stop doing that.

(techno jingle).

Make Captain America's Suit & Shield – DIY Costume Squad

Dustin McLean Claire max and Benjamin margin experts in the world of cosplay and DIY masters of duct tape cardboard and hot glue together they are the DIY costume squad hey what's up I'm Dustin and today I'm going to be making a very DIY Captain America costume I'm making

this for an upcoming episode of homemade movies so it's gonna be very scrappy and homemade and DIY using some stuff I just found in some thrift stores so let's give a shot okay so Captain America specifically from a Civil War it's a pretty straightforward costume when you really

look at it but I want to fancy it up using some foam with some of these little panels and things I'm gonna just paint a shirt and some pans of blue and then there's some straps the belt gloves and then the helmet of course that's probably the trickiest

part really is the helmet and then there's the shield too but we'll get to that in a little bit so I'm going to start with just kind of the base of the outfit that's gonna be blue so here's all the goodies that I got is the fun part

guard so for the first piece here I found a jacket this was $10 at a thrift store figured this was kind of like a nice plain canvas to start with and then I'll add some pieces on top of it and then paint it blue it's pretty sharp jacket

okay let's start by just trying it on and marking out some shapes because I'm doing this for a homie movies episode it's going to be our friend Michael he's playing Captain America so I'm gonna make it so that will kind of fit me and then I'm hoping that

he can squeeze into it also so I'm going to attach some various panels of different shapes on here and for that I'm gonna use craft foam from the craft store these are 99 cents apiece super easy to cut super easy to glue so I just printed out a

star for my computer that will just serve as a guide I'm just making this up and I'm like looking at the pictures but I'm making up a lot of the shapes myself to you yeah that's cool so it kind of made like a negative shape around where the

stars going to go so I'm going to trace these to make the mirror image so I'll have the other side as well okay so I'm going to glue these pieces down hot glue works really well on this EBA foam and it works really well on fabric too it

just soaks right in okay so this bottom piece I'm only going to glue halfway so that we can open the zipper later oh yeah [Music] so I'm just moving on to the arms it's a lot more of just kind of looking at the shapes and kind of just

faking it and drawing the shapes out here cutting them out gluing them on saving the red ones for later but all the ones that are going to end up being blue I'm just gluing right on definitely shield you can tell by the geometric pattern I think that's the

last piece of armor but what I'm going to do for the arms is I'm going to cut a seam right down the forearm and then align these edges with tape so that I can just tighten it down on my arm and then put my hand in the glove

and we'll all kind of stay in place alright now that all the foam pieces are in place it's time to paint in blue I picked up a handful of these blue paint cans they were three dollars each so let's head out to the paint station [Music] all right

so while I'm painting this blue I'm also going to paint the pants which I picked up at a thrift store for six dollars I made sure that these were kind of the same color as the coat so that way the paint will sort of sit on it the

same way all right so just got to wait for all this paint to dry and then I'll pick this back up tomorrow okay paint is all dry looking pretty good I've got my pants and my jacket so what I need to do is start adding in some of

these other pieces that are going to really make it pop so there's the star and then I've got the ABS these red and white stripes so I'll just be continuing on with craft foam I'll just trace these on here and then cut them out [Music] right okay I

think those are all the pieces so now I'm gonna glue them in place [Music] [Music] captain ooh what ah the star that really sells it alright so he's got this little Avengers emblem on his shoulder so I'm just gonna cut that circle out of some red foam and

then draw on the a with a white paint pen it's like a Necco wafer okay so I'm gonna paint this star silver I already have some old silver spray paint but usually it's around three bucks by now ooh that looks nez the finishing touches on this jacket are

going to be to draw on a few of the extra details using a black marker I'm just looking at the pictures and kind of figuring out where some additional lines should go alright so now it's time to add into velcro I have a little tiny bit left usually

you can get a whole roll of this for like I think two bucks [Music] sweet okay there are a few red pieces on the pants too I'm just going to cut some pieces and glue those on alright so next up I'm going to move on to some of

these straps and the belt so I bought a handful of miscellaneous belts and things they're around $3 each from a few different thrift stores got different sizes alright before I go too much further I'm gonna pay all three of these brown I [Music] really like the little metal

buckles on this black belt so I'm going to attach those to this belt alright I'm gonna make this little buckle piece in the back just add a one solid piece of cardboard cardboard that I recently used so I'll just draw out the shapes and cut it out and

then paint it okay the buckle is ready I'm going to be attaching the belts to them [Music] all right I think that's ready to go I'm going to move on to his belt I'm going to make the buckle out of cardboard of course I'm going to do a

very light coat of black on here this is 99 cents just to darken it and make it a little dirtier his belt has a bunch of little patches and pockets all along the sides so I'm going to use this fabric belt and cut them and just make a

bunch of little folds and that will kind of look like his little pockets all right I'm gonna start with gray primer that way when I paint the brown you'll be able to see it better [Music] okay I'm going to glue all of these really flat and then glue

them all to the belt [Music] I'm just going to hit those with brown real quick I love these pouches okay I'm going to move on to the gloves I found this pair at a thrift store for five dollars and I'll cut the fingertips off and then paint them

brown and then I think that's pretty much all I need to do ah it's like a couple if you fingertip the most unexpectedly morbid thing [Music] I think he's actually wearing black boots and then there's some long like spats I guess so you could just pick up a

pair of black boots but I'm gonna use these to extend my black boots and make them even taller okay so I've got two more belts here and cut each one of these into three pieces and then glue them on here I'm just gonna spray-paint these all the way

black so they don't look like Edward Scissorhands all right now I'm going to attempt to make this helmet which I think is gonna be the hard part so I bought this foam pirate hat in the craft store it was 250 also bought this Hardy mask and I think

it's like actually papery this was three dollars so between that and one more skinny belt I'm gonna see if I can put this together you know what forget Captain America I'm just gonna there that's my costume cool ready for the party I'm gonna use the heat gun very

lightly which can probably soften this really working [Music] I'm just going to change the shape of this eye a little bit with some tape that's better it's not quite so delayed [Music] it saturated with the tiny place [Music] [Music] [Music] okay I think that's it so I need

to paint this blue and then I'm gonna add in a few straps so first I'm just gonna spray paint the whole thing brown and the a and then I think that might be it okay so the mask is dry it was sticky for a little while so I

let it sit overnight but I'm ready to finish this up it's looking pretty good I'm gonna put the straps on I just need to cut it into some pieces okay on the small side but that's a pretty much it so I picked up some more velcro I'm gonna

have these two pieces actually attach in the middle [Music] I'm just gonna make a little buckle out of some galvanized steel wire alright so I'm going to make this little chin piece I'll just use some craft foam and just cut out some shapes on here and glue it

on [Music] so I've just got to add the final details a for the top there's some little winged things drawn a few more details and then that's it for the helmet for a while there I thought this time it was not gonna work at all but feeling pretty

good about it alright so I think that's everything for this suit but there's one last thing that Captain America needs and that is his shield for an episode of homemade movies been made this awesome Captain America shield out of a trash can lid you know if you want

to get real DIY with it you could do that but I'll show you how to make one just out of a piece of cardboard as well alright so I have this big piece of cardboard everyone always asks where you get your cardboard well I save big pieces this

is leftover from like a TV that I bought a while back so here's a trick for making my circles take a piece of string use that for the radius and then from your center point you can draw a circle all the way around okay so what I'm going

to do is add a little bit more curve to this by making a few slits along the outside edge so that it can kind of curve down so I don't think I need to actually glue those after all I'm just going to tape all of them one by

one and then it should have a nice curved surface alright just going to make a little handle back here alright time to paint [Music] I'm going to use my string again and do a series of circles and then I'll mask it off alright time for silver [Music] there

okay you got a few touch-ups I gotta do but not bad so I was going to just paint this inner circle blue but the masking kind of takes forever and it's peeling so I'm just going to make a separate piece of cardboard plus since this is a little

flat maybe that'll give it a little bit more dimension alright I'm just going to paint this blue Lou [Music] so the very last thing I'm going to do to the shield and to the costume is to do a very light layer of black paint just to kind of

dirty it up and make it look like it's really worn I'm not the back of its black or not but [Music] all right I think that's it I think it's time to try it on I always get the baggiest pants ever never had to make these a little

bit big so they can also fit Michael who is much taller than me [Music] quick nice [Music] okay so I'm just going to take these into place like that okay lastly the helmets here we go okay I guess I need now is my shield alright I think it's

time to go steal the squad hey we're not bad not Ben Ben and Bianca just had a baby as you might know but I'm going to reveal to you the Captain America costume here comes Captain America now Wow yeah with shields alright fantastic ok good this is Michael

and he is playing Captain America in the upcoming a Captain America Civil War homemade movies episode which comes out next Tuesday Claire plays Black Widow on that as well does fit on you a lot better than it fits on me I gotta say this actually took a lot

longer than I expected it's really started getting into the nitty-gritty of like wait no this one fits this one fits with this one you feel like you could like fight crime yeah this is like glued to my body which is ideal for crime fighting so give us your

best poses yeah the shield has we got a breeze coming up I know what what yes back in business very cool alright well thanks for watching this special episode of DIY costume squad and check out the homemade movies episode on Tuesday that's Captain America's Civil War with these

guys in this costume be sure and subscribe and let us know in the comments what other costumes you want to see and we'll see you next year all right best Captain America hug and whole gang and quick [Music] you [Music]

Harvey Specter Style | Dress Like Gabriel Macht In Suits

Harvey Specter Style Breakdown[0:00:00] When I got here, I dominated.

People thought I worked a hundred hours aday.

Now, no matter what time I show up, peopledon't question my ability to get the job done.

Get it through your head, first impressionsmatter.

Gentlemen, in today's video, how to dresslike Harvey Specter.

[Music]Harvey Specter, you guys have been asking me to do a video on his style, how he dresseshow he dominates a room for a long time, so here it is guys.

Starting this off, the first thing, suits.

Now, that's the name of the show, but HarveySpecter has a lot of them and he wears them.

That's the key if some of you guys have great-lookingsuits in your wardrobe and what — what happens to those suits? They gather dust, they get eaten by moths.

You don't actually wear them.

If you want to show up, if you want to dominatea room, you've got to actually wear the clothing.

Every time we see this character, he is bringinghis A-game.

And in fact, whenever his — he doesn't havea dimple in his tie, what happens? All of a sudden, other characters pick upsomething must be wrong.

He has set the standard so high.

Now, let's talk specifically about his suits.

So, what do we notice? First off, the fit.

I've talked about how fit is king.

Harvey Specter nails it from the shoulderpoints to the fit and the chest to the length of the jacket to the fit of his trousers.

He has a well-built body and he shows it offby wearing clothing that works for him.

Now, the style is going to be more Britishstyle where we're going to see padding in the shoulders, we're going to see paddingin the chest.

It really just gives him that masculine V.

He looks very strong.

He looks like someone you don't want to messwith and you don't want to mess with Harvey.

And he sends this signal when he walks intoa room and people don't even know him simply by the way he is wearing the suit.

Now, let's talk about the colors.

So, we see dark grays, we see overall justdark colors in general.

What is that — why go with darker colors? Because they are perceived as more formal, stronger, more dominant.

Keeps everything very business everythingvery dark.

But, notice the lapels, he goes for peak lapels.

I've got a notch lapel right here, very common.

Peak lapels are going to be less common.

And where we see peak lapels traditionally? On black-tie, double-breasted suits, but hebrings them into single breasted suits.

It makes it just a little bit more formalhelps him stand out from the crowd and continues to build up his chest area and his shoulders.

Other things we noticed about his jackets, he doesn't really have a whole lot of ticket pockets.

He doesn't go for that flashy look.

Instead, he goes for the double vent on theback which is more of the British style.

But, he's got little details like the stitchingon the buttons which to me saying, you know this isn't — it was probably made by a customtailor or definitely from a higher-end place, but he pays attention to those small details.

Now, when we look he's usually got four buttonsright here on the sleeves.

Again, most of his jackets single breastedtwo buttons.

I haven't really seen any three buttons.

He will occasionally bring in a vest, so whatwe see is a three-button suit.

Now, when we get down to his trousers, he'sgoing for flat front trousers, so no pleats on those.

Now, and his — when we get down to the cuffs, he has no cuffs, but overall we've got a slim cut.

Again, this works for his build, he's gota very toned body he's got, you know, he’s just in great shape and he shows it off.

And he lets basically this send the signalwhen he walks in the room that he is going to dominate.

Pop quiz for you suit fans.


What's the most expensive item that Harveyhas ever worn on set? What do you think some of the suits, someof the shoes? The answer is actually a wristwatch that hewore in season one.

It was a Patek Phillipe 5004P platinum perpetualcalendar split-second chronograph watch.

Guys, this sells used for $270, 000.

Oh, yeah, I guess you could buy it brand-newfor $350, 000.

Yes, he wears a very expensive watch.

Now, they did an interview and come to findout he thinks it was actually a fake, it was with the prop department.

Now, I'm not going to recommend that you weara fake watch, I would rather you buy a watch that you're going to love that you're goingto enjoy.

And, guys guess what? Vincero, the paid sponsor of today's video, I want you to go check out their watches.

Why do I love them? Why am I bringing them up now? Because guys these watches look amazing andfor the price you are getting a great watch.

These look like thousand-dollar watches.

You're going to find you pay a fraction ofthat.

For over two years, I've been working withthis company, they're a great company.

You guys write me back I've had — I havemet people in person who have told me, Antonio, I grabbed one of those watches and I loveit.

It's just such a nice — just a nice lookingwatch.

I would love for you and I would love to havea $10, 000, a $20, 000, a $350, 000 watch, but I know a lot of you up and coming Harvey Specters, you can't maybe afford that, but you want to watch that still looks great that looksamazing one that actually keeps great time has a lot of cool features and that's whatVincero has.

So, guys, go check them out.

I'm going to link to them down in the description.

There's a great discount code.

A good company I've been with for a long time.

[0:04:50]All right, guys, so let's have a little fun.

So, they sent me some extra watches as alwaysand I want to send them your way.

But, to get a watch, what you have to do isgo down and check out their website.

Let me know the exact details on the watchand with what Harvey Specter outfit you're going to wear it with.

Be – be descriptive.

Tell me in exacting detail because I wantto send some watches your way.

Again, guys, the link down in the description.

Use that discount code.

If you see something you really want.

I can tell you I love this new metal bandwatch really easy to change it out.

This one with the black leather the blackface just beautiful.

Go check them out guys.

Great company.

Next up, Harvey Specter’s shirts.

So, what do we notice about his shirts? That they're almost always white.

Nothing wrong with white, guys.

It is a blank canvas which everything elsecan build off of.

You've got enough complexity in your life, what I would recommend if you wear suits quite a bit or you want to start wearing them, juststart off with five to ten white shirts.

Now, you can change them up, I'm not sayingyou got to get the exact same white shirt.

You can go with different color styles.

In fact, when we see Harvey Specter, he hasa few different color styles.

Now, with his cuffs, what do we notice? That he has barreled cuffs most of the time, but he also likes French cuffs.

And he's going to bring in small metal cufflinks, nothing really fancy, but something that definitely sends the signal.

This guy know he is the man.

Now, you can change up and go with a widevariety of cuffs with those ten shirts as I was talking about.

You can change out some of the colors.

Such an easy way to quickly build up a veryformal, but very sharp looking wardrobe.

So, when I was talking about shirt colors, I was talking about that spread collar.

Why go for a spread? Because it allows you to put in a large necktieknot.

Harvey loves the full Windsor.

Now, I've only got a half Windsor here because, hey, it suits my body type and I didn't want to go overboard here.

But, a half Windsor, a full Windsor, a largeknot with the right necktie.

Now, what do you notice about Harvey's neckties? They are always silk.

He doesn't go for any of that wool or anyof that knitted stuff.

He doesn't want no casual ties.

This guy is going straight silk.

And we're not talking imitation silk here, go for the real thing.

Look for a sevenfold necktie look for somethingthat is going to be of higher quality.

If you can't afford that level at this point, well, then just go with the best that you can find.

But at the end of the day, silk is going tobe the most formal.

Now, he usually goes for solid colors, we'reseeing a dark purple, the color of kings.

We're going to see our navies, we're goingto see blacks, so you can go for these darker colors.

What you want to avoid is something that'sgoing to be silk, but way too casual.

Those are going to be lighter color ties, those are going to be ones with really bright colors with larger patterns, those are goingto be much more casual.

Now, let's talk about Harvey Specter’s shoes.

So, is this is where I feel the costume designdepartment kind of fell down.

They know that most of the time the shoesare not even going to be seen.

So whenever we do see the shoes they're goingto be oftentimes in pictures, what do we see? He just goes for a basic black cap toe Oxford.

Hey, it works when well-shined.

It's classic, works with everything.

I do find that Harvey gears towards black.

He also brings in some dark brown.

I would love to see him in oxblood.

Now, when he's bringing in the brown, we seeoftentimes a brogue.

He doesn't really get super crazy with hisshoes and this is an area where I think you could outshine Harvey Specter.

You can have fun with your shoes.

You can go with a two-tone, maybe go for adouble monk strap, maybe go for a whole cut that's got a little bit of a medallion rightthere on the toe.

Have fun with your footwear, guys.

Next up, let's talk about Harvey Specter’shair.

So, there was an early interview that GabrielMacht did talking about how, okay, they took some cues from Gregory Peck from Cary Grant, but they wanted to modernize it they wanted to change things up.

Now, that was early in season one.

What we saw happened in season 2, season 3is that his hair started to evolve.

His hair, it became more vertical, but itstill had a strict and structured feel to it.

We see a tight side part on the left handside with a subtle pompadour in the front.

To get this look, you need the sides to becut short, not buzzed just cut short with some length on the top.

Now, to keep it in place, you want to runthrough it a strong hold gel or a pomade, something that basically is just going tokeep that longer hair in place.

If necessary, use the right brush maybe usea blow dryer.

But at the end of the day, what you're lookingfor is a bit of volume there on top, something that isn't going to get too long somethingthat's not too short something that gives a modern business look.

And let's not forget the pocket square.

So, Harvey Specter wears a simple presidentialfold with a white linen or cotton pocket square.

We’ll occasionally see gray as well, buthe's not going to bring in a big paisley or something that has, you know, just brightcolors and stuff it in there and have it going all over the place, that would be distracting.

Harvey Specter knows that he wants to keepit very simple to the point and keep it all about business.

All right.

So, those are some great tips on how to dresslike Harvey Specter, but understand they mean nothing if you are not the type of man thatcan actually pull off this look.

Who is that type of man? Well, you need to be a man of integrity, youneed to be a man of your word, you need to be a man who every day is working harder tobecome the best him that is looking around to raise and to help lift up others.

That's what I like about Harvey Specter.

He's actually a good character.

Yes, he may come off as arrogant as brashas someone that's egotistical.

Yes, I get that.

But, when it comes down to it, he's actuallya good person who actually has strong feelings and protects and takes care of those aroundthem.

I think that men at the end of the day, weneed more leaders like that.

They're a good person trying to improve, youknow, just the world in general.

[0:10:15]So, guys, hopefully you took some great things from today's video.

If you want more, go check out the supportarticle I'm going to link to it down in the description.

In addition, I'm going to link over to Vincero, the great paid sponsor of today's video.

Guys, I love these watches.

For over two years, again, I've worked withthis company.

I've got some extras, so go check out thatwebsite.

Use the link down below.

Let me know which styles and how you wouldmatch them with your Harvey Specter outfit.

Let me know.

I want to hear like what are you going tochange up the tie? You may be going to go for a little bit morefun on the pocket square? Just I want to hear from you guys I love hearingyour different looks and I'll be down there in the comments interacting.

That's it guys.

Take care.

I’ll see in the next video.

[0:10:54] End of Audio.

2nd Bespoke Suit Fitting With Sartoria Jensen ✂️ | Kirby Allison

I'm Kirby Allison and I love helpingthe well-dressed acquire and care fortheir wardrobes.

Join me as weexplore the world of quality, craftsmanship and tradition.

Hi I'mKirby Allison and I love to help thewell-dressed acquire and care fortheir wardrobes.

I'm here today withEric Jensen at Bespoke Tailor fromNew York for the second fitting of mygrey fresco suit that he's making forme so Eric's so great to have youback in Dallas.

Glad to be here.


Thanks for coming so in the lastvideo that we filmed, that was thefirst fitting, right? Yeah, so what we did was basicallyit's just the shell of the suit.

Atthis point now in the second fittingwe have much more that's finished.

However it's going to be able to showme more things that need to beadjusted in regards to the fit of thecoat.


So the first was really justkind of validating the basic shapeand pattern.

And now you've actuallyput some structure into the jacket.


It got more shape, more work.

It gotthe inner linings I guess all thecanvassing.


All the canvassing, the pocketsare in as well as the interiorpockets.

The lining is in for themost part.

It's probably about 80percent in and then the sleeves arebasted on, the sides are basted upand then the colors basted on aswell.


So where does this fitting fitkind of in the scope of your normalprocess.

For me I don't know how it is formost other tailors.

I think everytailor kind of works on a system thatworks for them.

For me my secondfittings show me the most.

So itreally is where I start to hone thedifferences of the suit that's gonnamake it yours.

The first fitting likeyou said is is there to adjust forbalance, to make sure that we havechest and length and everything else.


And then, so this is the secondfitting and you normally are whatdelivering in, what three to fourfittings? Yeah, for first client it's I airmore on the three to four fittings.

Again it's really important that youand I are both happy at the finalphase so whether I say a hard andfast rule of three or four fittingsbut if we do the third fitting andit's like we're not there then weneed to take that time to keep goingand make sure that we get the patterncorrect because the next time, sothat's gonna be beneficial for ourprocess.

And so the next fitting, thirdfitting what would that look like.

Imean is it a finished jacket andyou're just adjusting for smallelement.

Yeah, if I'm happy with where we'reat after this then yes, that's whatwe're gonna do.

It'll be pretty closeto finished coat.

We'll just makesure that we adjust for sleevelength, for button position and fortrousers making sure that we've gotthe correct length on the trousersand things like that.

Yeah, great.

Well, I can't wait toput that suit on so let me run and gotry it on.

So here I am back of thetrousers on and absolutely walkingover, they feel awesome.

The rise looks beautiful.

The roomthat we have given you in the hips aswell as in the legs look beautiful.

Ithoroughly enjoy the the shape thatwe've gotten in the front.

My onlydetailed problem is just that we havea little bit of excess cloth herethat just needs to be taken care of.

And that's not saying that we have toreduce the amount of cloth there, wejust have to let the angle, changethat angle just a little bit too tooto be able to work with your hips.

Sowe're going to let out and fork alittle bit of shifting of the angleof the seam.

Okay now just talk me through alittle bit in terms of kind of whatyou did.

I mean, it's a really highrise.

I mean it's super comfortable.

You know single reverse pleat.

I meanit's a beautiful trouser.


My maestro in Italy, this wasthe only way we were taught to cuttrousers was at this height and Ifeel like it just really does abeautiful job of making the body lookperfectly proportionate.


Soit hits you right where it shootsabout at your navel which reallybreaks your body up into two perfectlittle almost half's.

And it alsogives your legs a little ofelongation which I really enjoy.

Youknow nowadays we have those lowerrise trousers that are more the fadnow.

Really kind of makes people looklike their torsos walking aroundsticks.

Well especially they don't haveplastic and making the pudgy.

Yes and that as well.

And a pleatlike this so you still have a verytrim trouser.

I mean in my opinionthis is not a full trouser.

It's nota skinny trouser but it's still trim.

But you have a nice clean pleat.

It'sgiving you the room that you needwhere you need it.

Then thecomfortability.

But it's not givingyou weight where you don't needweight.

I mean it's not tight.

I've got someroom.

You know and I asked you to cutit a little bit loose because I wannabe able to wear these with braces.

Exactly, and so we did that as well.

We put the tabs on the back.

So theyfold away.

So when you're not wearingbraces they look like this when youare wearing braces they can come upand you can button.

And the trouser has nice structuretoo, it's not you know, it doesn'tfeel flimsy in any way.


Which I've seen on some trousers evenBespoke trousers.

And you know I feellike kind of holding the end in youknow, the you know this fresco is areally heavyweight fresco, feelsbulletproof.

It's I mean this is on the higherweight of the fresco range.

So thisis about twelve and half, thriteenounce.

But you'll still breathereally well in it which is afantastic option as well.

I think I'mvery happy with where we're at.


Can I mark? Yes please.

I don't know to mark length rightnow.

Maybe I do.

Were you sayikngthat you wanted cuff or no cuff? So I think we'll do cuff on this.


I do like, I think a nice 2-inchturnout.

I like that.

I think that's going tobe very elegant.

And in regards toyour length of your trousers, do younormally wear a shoe like or are youplanning on normally wearing a shoelike this in regards to the fact thatit's a loafer.

Or will you be wearinga more full coverage? Well both.

Ok, so then my other question issometimes when guys wear loafers theydon't want to see any of their sock.

Do you not want to see any of yoursock in terms of the the length andthen the break? Well I like it kind of a mediumbreak.

Ok, that helps.

I've just made thingsfor some clients who ended up wearingloafers and who didn't want to seeany of their sock.

And it's adifferent kind of length to yourtrouser.

I mean is it the length or is it alsohow wide it's cut? Its going to be wide and length.

Imean it's going to be about how muchcloth pulls up.

You don't have areference point right now do you? I'mgoing to mark like this and then youcan look at them later.

Because ofthe circumference, I don't want togive you too much like I don't wantto watch cloth down there.

So I'mgiving you a medium to small break, probably more.

Are you going to cut this wider? No.

For the circumference of thebottom? Yeah.


I think this is a very elegantdrape.

I think it has a nice cleanline from hip to knee down to yourhem opening.

So for me I wouldn'tmake this larger in terms of like thetaper.


In terms of the taper.

Okay soanything else.

I mean it's abeautiful.

I mean I really like howthis particular heavier weight clothholds the crease.

It's a beautifulsharp crease you know and it's astraight line down.

So it's aperfectly placed.

It's yeah.

That's one of thebeautiful attractions of a pleat iswhen you do get that line right, thatvery nice clean straight line.

It'sjust in my opinion it pales incomparison.

And in the frescoes youget a really really clean sharp crispof crease as well and it holds it.

Sothat's another reason why I reallyenjoy working with it.

And it's opening a little bit butthat's more because of the body ofthe fabric.


So it's going to open a littlebit because it has more rigidity tothe cloth so it doesn't die, itdoesn't hit flat.


I personallyI think that's very elegant.

I thinkit's elegant because it adds a newfocal point of the trouser.

Yeah well it gives a little bit ofthree dimensionality to it.


Almost like the role of yourlapel vest.

Well great.

Now it's time for thejacket.

Yes, let's see.

All right.

So as Isaid the lining is at this pointbasted in.

We do have the lining inthe sleeves free because it's notgoing to be tacked down.

It's notgonna be finished.

It's all just kindof a work in progress still.

Shoulders are basted, collars bastedon, the sides are basted as well.

Sothis way I've more ability to adjustthe coat while it's on you as opposedto you know just kind of pinning andhoping.

I'm gonna put one sleeve in, I'm going to grab the other one.

Youshould be in.


Well here, we are, my favorite.

I feel like I'm really wearing ajacket.

Yeah I'd say it's coming together.

Doesn't look just like a shelf, basically yes.

So I mean I can immediately feel theweight.

I mean it's got body to itwhich I like which is a little bit Imean it kind of offsets I guess thesoft structure.


We've got alittle bit of a heavier fabric.

It's kind of it works two fold.

Ireally like a soft coat.

I also liketo have some structure to it.

So Ilike to use cloths that have thatespecially for someone like you whois going to, who does a lot oftraveling, who does a lot of wearingof their suits.

You want some ofthat's going to have length of lifebehind.


So first thing that I always do is Iwant to look at the coat on.

But Ijust make sure we get everythinglined up.

The circuits.

So we still have that beautiful way.

We still have the the front comingtogether real nice and clean.


They're pretty much overlap aswell.

We have a little bit to adjustin regards to this shoulder.

As wellas this.

You have a nice nice chestand a nice -.

Yeah, the arms feel nice.

Beautifulroll of lapel and I was noticingwhenever I put it on, I could seeactually a nice belly.

Oh yeah, so we talked about that Ibelieve earlier and you know we kindof went back and forth on how to dothat but I think we really found anelegant line on that lapel.

So youhave a nice beautiful belly and anice -.

And we're doing two button.


Correct two button.


SoI'm just going to look things over.


Kirby if I pinch here and here, doyou feel restrictive, if you moveforward? No.


So you have a drop here.

Soyour shoulders sloped.

It's a littleslope more than the coat will allow.

So it's creating just that little bitof bunch.

I like draping the chest soI'd like you to have room and andfreedom of movement and also createsa better suppression.

But right nowwe're just creating a little bit toomuch of a fold.

So I just want toclean.

How much of that are you able to fixwithout having to redo the sleeve? A bit.

I mean not too much because ifyou do too much you're gonna have tocut down the arm hole.

So for everyamount that you shorten here youusually have to shorten the arm hole.

You are dropped on the arm hole.

Iusually like a nice high and tightarm hole so try to get away with notdropping it as much as I can.

Howeveron this side we're going to have todo drop it.

And when you pull it in here at thearms will also that kind of smooththat out.

For that drape, for the most part no.

I'm going to check this and see if Ican bring.

Let's see.

There, muchbetter I feel.

Does that feel? I can feel it hugging the neck more.

Yeah it feels a little more -.

A snug around the collar.

We'll have to dig out of it becauseit is still collapsing.

You can, doesit feel? It's collapsing just alittle.

So we're going to drop backto.

Well the joys of being fitted.

Hurry up and wait.


It's come together on a collar.

It feels much better.



Once we have the slope, yourshoulders far more than we did.

And this shoulder right here is theone that slopes the most.


So your low here on the rightbut both.

So if they're not slope andif the coat's not flipped enough withyou, the collar tends to fall away.

And that's just because how it works.

So what was happening was it wasn'tsitting as close to your neck as itshould and that's in regards to thisslope.

Yeah that's one of the hallmarks of aof a nice Bespoke jacket is that it'salways going to be moved around andit stays and comes right back in theneck.

Yeah and now it keeps doing that.

Soit looks a lot better on.

This side, I'm not gonna be able to do it asmuch as it should because of your armhole.

So what's happening right nowis because I'm slipping the shouldersso much.

It's your arm hole went fromthat wide down to like that and yourarm needs more movement.

So it'scausing these collapses.

That's something you can fix wheneveryou take it back.


So when to take it back Imeasure how much I've sloped theshoulder and then you take that andyou take the same amount and you dropthe arm hole.


So basically you're just taking acoat that's cut for the angle likethis and just cutting it like that, and then you're just dropping thearm.

But right now we have a muchcleaner body in the front than we didwhen we began.

We still have a littlebit of collapsing here and here butagain that's because of the arm hole.

So once we take care of that andremedy that we'll be able to get acleaner look.

And talk about some of the otherdetails of the jacket I mean anythingelse? Oh yeah.

I know there's a lot ofthings that are different in regardsto who's cutting your cones and I'vehad a couple conversation withclients in regards to this becauseit's almost like if you think aboutmusic for instance.

Everybody has acertain taste in music it's kind ofwhat defines you in a way.

Youwouldn't go to a guy who's known foryou know guitar riffs and ask him youknow to do Bach for you in the sameway that you wouldn't do go to acomposer who does Bach and tell himto do a rap song.

It's just they'recompletely different pools ofinterests.

It's all still music, allstill beautiful but there's differentpools of interest in each one.

And Ithink tailors are very much that way.

We all have a house style.

I feellike a lot of tailors don't like thatword.

I really like that word yeahbecause I want to make what I enjoyand I want my client to enjoy thesame thing.

But at the same time, ifyou don't like the music I'm playing, i's best if you don't come here andhear me play because you're nevergoing to really enjoy it at the sameway that's someone who likes themusic I play you know.

So in thatregard, I kind of a very Italian suityou know and it's what makes mehappy.

It's what I really enjoy andwhat I like to see.

And some peoplelike that and some people don't.

Youknow it's kind of to put it on anadage, you can be the most beautifulbeach in the whole entire world, themost succulent, the most incrediblebeach.

Some people don't likebeaches, you know what I mean.


And it's that kind of mentality.

Somy coats are Italian.

We cut in topieces.

So you were talking aboutthis earlier, you were talking aboutthe spread out here.

So that goesfrom chest all the way down to thebottom and that's a very hallmark ofan Italian Southern Italian suit.

Ok, maybe the fearinting who likeLiverano, Liverano, we were askingabout, usually won't cut with thefront at all.

So there'll be nothinghere, so there'll be only be thatone.

But there's also no side panel onthis.

Yeah in most Italians suits, in factI don't know.

No one to ever said ahundred percent.

Someone alwaysproved me wrong.

Yeah but I'll gowith 90 percent of Italian suits thatdon't have side body.

So they contrasting it to the Britishor the French.


The British or the Frenchand they're always going -.

So they wouldn't have this, but righthere.

Normally it's through thepocket.

So it's a third panel so there's yourfirst panel here.

And then your sidebody which is your second panel andthen you're back which is your thirdpanel.

So those are the differencesand the nuances behind the coats.

Butyeah I'm influenced, I'm inspired bythe look.

And that's one of the interestingthings about New York and really theworld for that matter is there's abunch of different tailors kind ofall doing different styles but as faras New York is concerned really forthe most part in America you'rereally the only one specializing in aBespoke Italian aesthetic.

Yeah, that's yeah.

We've got other Bespoke tailors inNew York that kind of pull more fromthe British genre to the Americankind of flavor of tailoring slightlymore structured certain details likethis you know not being a part oftheir house style.


Whereas you know if you live inAmerica, if you live in New York andyou really want that kind ofclassical Italian silhouette andstyle and you're really the only guyI know doing Bespoke.

Yeah, that's correct.

As far as Iknow as well in regards to that.

Those defining characteristics thatreally set apart an Italianespecially a mid of Southern Italianlook.

That's yeah, as far as I know.

And you can't group Italy is like thesame country, you know Southern Italyfrom Northern Italy is you knowcouldn't be any farther.

No no.

Exactly and they have just acompletely different mindset and whenit comes to tailoring.

You know Chriswho I apprentice, he was highlyinfluenced by the Milanese tailor.

Sothere's a little more structure, there's a little more – Finish on, is much neater.

Yeah I wouldn't say neater but I getthat.

It's like, I like the idea ofthe defect is the effect.

I like theidea that elegance has that one thingthat catches your eye that maybeshould or shouldn't be there.

Ireally enjoy that so I like how theNapoleons love the idea of handmadewhere it shows that it's handmadebecause there is something that'sjust not quite right.

But it's that, it's not quite right and it'sabrasive to the eye.

It's just notquite right but it seems and there'sa beauty in that to me.

But it's not intentional, it's notlike they're intentionally puttingaway you know things not right there.

Sometimes, if you've so much doughmasked.

You know some of the guys.

One of the gentlemen, I can'tremember which one, but he said youknow sometimes I like to make adouble breasted that just has alittle bit of a problem too just justto show that you know I know there'sthat little thing.

And it makes itthat, it's handmade and that kind ofshows that handmade authenticity.

Theproblem that I find with nowadays isthere's so much emphasis on themachine and its perfection on thescene.

But it almost ends up dead.

And I always want my suits to bealive.

I want the cloth to, I wantthe suit to take all of the humanityof it.

Exactly, like you want a certainhumanity in your garments that aren'tperfect.

I think in some ways it'sthe difference between Japanese shoemakers and British makers.

TheJapanese are incredibly talented youknow and they make perfect shoes butat what point is it to perfect thatit becomes sterile.


You know not to say anything aboutthe Japanese shoe makers, they areincredible.


You know, but I think from a generalconceptual standpoint you know ifit's too perfect then you know it'ssterile and there's no life to it.

There's no spirit and there's noessence.

And you know not to give excuse tosomething not being made well or donewell.

There are two different things.

It's not like well this is an excusefor something not being done righthere or being done poorly.

No it'sstill perfect but you can't, it's notsterile, there's no life.


There's no excuse forsloppiness.

But there's a beauty andelegance in the hand nature.

So what's next? I mean so we've, you've gone through this.

I mean isthere anything else you need to see.

So right now because this secondfitting, we, how to do so muchadjustments and that's part of it isbecause of the differences that comewhen there is a second fitting.

Theother part is you know some thingsyou just miss.


And that happens and that's whythere's the ensurance of a secondfitting.

But I like where we're at andI like where we're moving.

I willprobably get to the next fitting asfinished for the most part when we dothe next fitting, we'll check on yoursleeve.


And that's what it willtake more account of that.


So we'll do the button holes.

We'lltalk about you know how many buttonholes you like on your sleeve.

We'lltalk about you know how many buttonholes you like on your sleeve.

We'lltalk about you know how you like whenyour arm is down, how much of yourcuff you like showing.

We'll talkabout the use of your watch and whattypes of shirts your wearing, ifyou're always wearing again shirt, sleeve lengths of coat are highlydeterminative to the eye on the shirtsleeve lenght.


So I've measured guys sleeves lengthwhen they're wearing one shirt andthen they wear the next shirt andthey go, wait this is too much shirtshowing but their sleeve is still inthe same spot.

It's the shirt sleevesthat peeked out more or less.

And sothat's that's another conversationthat needs to be had in regards tosleeve.

My shirt are pretty consistent.


What about that, I mean just thedrape of the shoulder and rotation ofthe sleeve.


So for the most part one offirst fitting I chose where yoursleeve was going to be and it stayedconsistent.

So before we ripped thesleeves I had noticed that and Iliked where it was.

So I'm going tokeep it as where it's been.

And Ihave that number.

Again things arealways kind of organic and they'rekind of, the coat's always kind ofsettling and adjusting and you'resettling and adjusting you know whenwhen I measure you, I try to get youas comfortable as possible and when Ifit you I try to get you ascomfortable as possible.

I'll neverget you at your most comfortable.

Sothose types of things could adjust.


When we do the finished product butagain if I'm not happy and you're nothappy things get changed.


Soeven though the sleeves will be sewnon the next time yeah if they're notright then they're all right and wefix.

Well that's one of the beauties of Ithink a developing relationship witha tailor is that you know you need towear and live in your garments DNAfor you know you and the garment tokind of settle into one another.

Andthat's where the iterative processyou know, the longer you have therelationship the better the workproduct comes.

Certainly, and we touched on thislast time and it's that idea ofdating and marriage.

You know whenyou date your tailor things are greatbut when you marry the tailor that'swhen you really have developed themagic.


Well great.

Well the suit pantsfeels fantastic.

I mean I like thatyou know the weight of the fabric.

Itfeels you know really I mean it feelslike, it's got body to it which Ilike and I can't wait to see this asa finished product.

It's really beenkind of a hearty you know kind oftravel ready suit that you know thatwill fold up nicely and I love howthe weight gives the fabric drapewhich really allows the beauty offine tailoring to really be seen.


My other question I'm justgoing to ask is how do you like thenew shoulder pads because we haven'tput a shoulder about yet.

I mean you know I mean as long as itlooks good.

Yeah I mean you know tome the shoulder pad is less of a youknow it doesn't make me feel anydifferent as long as you know howdoes it look.


And that's the main thing is togive you that comfort and the abilitybut also give you structure in theshoulder without adding too much tolike.

So I am just looking on rightnow, I just really kind of enjoy howthey look.

But I think that you'llhopefully find that reallycomfortable.


That will probably be one ofthose things that you will wear toreally after I have it on for a dayor two, I have traveled with exactlylike that.


And it won't have all thesepins.

Yeah right.

Well, Eric thanks forcoming.


I can't wait to see the next stephere and I couldn't be more happywith how this.


I'm very happy.

I think we'removing in a good direction and Ithink we'll have a beautiful garment.